Presentation on theme: "A.Two types of digestion 1. Chemical accomplished by enzymatic breakage of chemical bonds, resulting in carbs, lipids, proteins becoming monomers again."— Presentation transcript:
A.Two types of digestion 1. Chemical accomplished by enzymatic breakage of chemical bonds, resulting in carbs, lipids, proteins becoming monomers again. 2. Mechanical happens as food is physically broken into smaller and smaller pieces B. Function is to ingest, break down foodstuffs into monomers, absorb nutrients, water and eliminate the undigestible or harmful.
A.Alimentary canal, GI tract is hollow tube (30 feet) located in abdominopel vic cavity B.1-6 = path of food 1. Mouth 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small & Large Intestine 6. Rectum & Anus
C. There are Four tunics esophagus to anus. a. mucosa secretes, absorbs and protects (has 3 layers) b. submucosa dense connective w/ elastin, protects & nourishes c. muscularis externa (1)inner layer is circular muscle = peristalsis (2)outer layer is longitudinal = segmentation d. adventia or serosa is visceral peritoneum
1.Entry for digestive system. 2.Accessory organs are gums, teeth, tongue (lingual frenulum), uvula, soft and hard palate, salivary glands (parotid) tonsils (lingual, palantine, pharyngeal) lips and cheeks
a.Propels food toward esophagus b.Nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
a. Food tube ( 10 inches located behind trachea) moves food by peristalsis. Esophagus is stratified squamous epithelial interspersed w/ goblet cells = mucus to help bolus slide down and a double layer of muscle.
a.Function (1) Mechanical/chemical digestion (2) Secretes enzymes, mucus and hormones (3) Protein digestion (4) Food storage b. Anatomy (1)greater/lesser curvature (2)Fundus (3)Cardiac/pyloric regions and sphincters (superior is gastroesophageal) (4)Rugae (5)3 rd layers of muscle is oblique (6)Greater omentum can get quite large
a. 3 parts = 6 feet (1) Duodenum 10 inches for absorption and final stages of digestion (2) Jejunum 8 feet (3) Ileum 12 feet (4) ileocecal valve
(5)Sphincter of Oddi controls entry of brush border enzymes, while the bile duct controls entry of bile into Sl. (6) Microvilli (on villi) increase surface area of mucosa. They become less as distance from duodenum increases. (7) Incidence of preyer’s patches increase as distance from duodenum increases. (8) Brunner’s glands in submucosa = mucus
6.Plicae circulares are deep, permanent folds of mucosa and submucosa that force chyme to spiral thru the lumen, slowing its movement so that absorption can take place
3 parts a. Ascending b. Transverse c. Descending d. Anatomy (1)Hepatic flexure (2)Splenic Flexure
(3)Colon 3 inches in diameter and 5 feet long. It becomes the sigmoid colon which ends at the rectum (final 6 inches) as feces pass out anus e. Functions (1) to absorb water, BP, creation & elimination of feces
1.Teeth 2.Tongue 3. Liver* 4.Gall Bladder 5. Pancreas* 6.Salivary* and other *glands
a.Moves food, which is now bolus b.Initiates swallowing c.Sensory = Taste buds
a.Liver is most versatile organ in the body w/ over 200 functions- stores glycogen, makes bile, detoxifies. 1.Right lobe of liver 2.Left lobe of liver 4. Round ligament 8. Common bile duct 9. Hepatic artery 10.Portal vein 11.Cystic duct 12.Hepatic duct 13.Gallbladder