Results Based Monitoring (RBM)
Session 2/ Theoratical Input 2 Results Based Monitoring (RBM) “It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong” - John Maynard Keynes -
RBM as a development and monitoring tool
What is this RBM? It is an exercise to assess the performance of a project/ program (or an organization) on the basis of the impacts and benefits (Results!) that it is expected to produce. It is a continuous process of collecting and assessing information on the results or changes that a project/ program (or an organization) is producing; compare that information with expected results/ changes that the project/ program (or the organization) supposed produce; and understand how well or not, the project/ program (or the organization) performing against the expected results/ changes! Contd…..
Why we want RBM as our tool for M&E?
The traditional, implementation focused M&E methods/ approaches only look at delivery or completion of the tasks/ activities, outputs/ objectives of a project/ program or an organization (those ask, did they do it? did they managed to complete it?) But the above M&E methods/ approaches do not allow the managers/ administrators/ stakeholders to know about the successes and/ or failures of a project/ program or an organization! Contd…..
If we could not know success and failures, the following situation might happen:
If you do not measure results, you cannot tell success from failure. If you cannot see success, you cannot reward it. If you cannot reward success, you are probably rewarding failure. If you cannot see success, you cannot learn from it. If you cannot recognize failure, you cannot correct it. If you can demonstrate results, you can win public support. - Osborne & Gaebler
Principles of RBM What good things that it brings to us?
It provides a feedback on the actual outcomes (results) of a project’s/ program’s or an organization’s actions. It helps us to answer the following questions: What are the goals/ outputs expected to achieve by the project/ program or the organization? Are they being really achieved? How are we going to know are those really achieved? Contd…..
- Fukuda-Parr, Lopes, and Malik 2002 -
What are the basics of RBM? Baseline data to describe the problem or situation before the project Develop indicators for the outputs as well as outcomes of the project Collect data that relevant to outputs and outcomes of the project Involve the stakeholders for understanding the changes that take place in the project environment Reports on more qualitative and quantitative information on the progress toward outcomes Involvement of strategic partners/ stakeholders in M&E Captures information on success or failure the project strategy in achieving desired outcomes - Fukuda-Parr, Lopes, and Malik Contd…..
Goals/ Impacts/ Benefits
What is RBM model? Long-term, widespread impacts/ improvements in the society/ project surrounding or environment Goals/ Impacts/ Benefits Results Intermediate effects of the outputs on the beneficiaries/ Right-holders/ stakeholders of the project Outcomes/ Use of Outputs Outputs Products and services produced by the project Implementation Tasks that the project personnel undertake to transform inputs to outputs Activities Financial, human, and material resources of the project Inputs Contd…..
How are we going to use this model? Tow levels of monitoring
Implementation monitoring (“means and strategies”): use annual operational/ activity plans, work schedules (works-breaks structures), and personnel and financial management schedules and standards Results monitoring: use “performance indicators” set according to outcomes, that are given in a project mandate and developed by a project team Setting up of outcome targets: set according to the capacity of “means strategies” (inputs, activities, and outputs) Contd…..
In setting an outcome, asks the following questions: For whom? Where?
Setting up outcomes? Translation of problems/ issues as positive statements of expected impacts/ results Disaggregate to capture the key results (to have only one improvement area) In setting an outcome, asks the following questions: For whom? Where? How much? By when? Contd…..
What is the link between the Implementation Monitoring and Results Monitoring?
Outcome Use annual plans are used for effectively using the “means & strategies” of a project. Effective use of the “means & strategies” will assure achieving the outputs, and finally outcomes and impacts! By looking at the “targets” a project can take a decision on how and how much to utilize the overall input allocation for particular budget period. Information flow Target Information flow Means and strategies
Outcome indicators (key performance indicators):
Setting up indicators? What is an indicator? A sign/ mark to show that there has been a changed occurred due an activity/s of a project. Having indicators at all levels of the implementation and results monitoring is important to measure the progress/ performance Outcome indicators (key performance indicators): Translate outcomes into outcome indicators These indicators should be “CREAM”: C = clear/ precise R = relevant E = economic/ cost effective A = adequate M = monitorable (can use for monitoring) Proxy (indirect) indicators: use only when direct indicators are not available or handling is too costly Contd…..
Key steps in setting up a RBM system for a project?
Develop/ agree on outcomes Select/ develop key indicators for monitoring the outcomes Baseline data on the indicators (Where are we today?) Update baseline and continue M&E according to a schedule/ plan Collect information and monitoring for results Adopt changes if needed and report back the same Report findings and communicate Assess information and evaluate results
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