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Periodic Table Review Activity

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Table Review Activity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Periodic Table Review Activity

2 Definition What does PERIODIC mean?
A repeating pattern Mendeleev left some spaces in his table because not all elements lined up according to atomic mass. He used info he knew about surrounding elements to PREDICT properties and masses of unknown elements. How about that!

3 Mendeleev (1869) Organized table by...
ATOMIC MASS Thought pattern must exist between all elements Elements in columns show similar properties… Both physical and chemical! Predicted properties of “missing” elements

4 Moseley (c. 1914) rearranged table by ...
ATOMIC NUMBER Determined atomic number of elements by determining number of protons in element

5 Seaborg (1944) Rearranged Periodic Table with...
Lanthanide and Actinide Series pulled out/separated from main Periodic Table Discovered countless isotopes & 10 new elements

6 Information from Periodic Table
Atomic number Chemical symbol Atomic mass Chemical name Plus countless other information, depending on the table used!

7 Columns of Table = groups or families
Newer designation: 1-18 8 main families labeled with Roman Numeral and letter ‘A’ Elements within the same family have similar but not identical properties Electron configuration varies periodically (pattern of valence electrons) family # or IA-IIA-IIIA-IVA-VA-VIA-VIIA-VIIIA valence e

16 18 1 2 15 17 14 13

9 Definition Valence electrons
electrons found in the outermost energy level use the group number to determine number of valence electrons

10 Names of Families Group 1 or IA Group 2 or IIA Group13 or IIIA
Group 14 or IVA Group 15 or VA Group 16 or VIA Group 17 or VIIA Group 18 or VIIIA Groups 3-12 Lanthanide & Actinide series Alkali metals Alkaline Earth metals Boron family Carbon family Nitrogen family Chalogens Halogens Noble gases Transition metals Inner transition metals

11 Rows of Table = periods Properties are not alike within a period
7 periods = number of energy levels in atom 2 additional rows at bottom of table are Lanthanide and Actinide series and belong to periods 6 and 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13 Trends Valence number Charge of ion Tendency to gain or lose electrons
Atomic size (radius) Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity Reactivity Metallic vs. nonmetallic properties

14 Periodic Law Octet Rule
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number. The tendency of atoms to gain or lose electrons so they acquire 8 electrons in their outer energy level for stability

15 Ionization Energy Electron Affinity
energy required to remove an electron from an atom; to form a cation kJ/mol attraction of an atom for an added electron; to form an anion kJ/mol

16 Atomic Radius Electro-negativity estimate of the size of an atom
distance between the nucleus and the likely location of electron cloud ability of an atom to compete with other atoms for electrons shared between them i.e. who wants them more?

17 Across a Period radius decreases ionization energy increases
electronegativity increases b/c number of protons increases, as does number of electrons… number of valence electrons increases… so EMF increases… so valence electrons held more tightly…

18 Atomic Radius PERIOD 3 PERIOD 2

19 Ionization Energy PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3

20 Electronegativity PERIOD 2 PERIOD 3

21 Down a Family radius increases ionization energy decreases
electronegativity decreases b/c number of energy levels increases… so valence electrons held less tightly b/c further away from nucleus…

22 Atomic Radius Family IA Family IIA

23 Ionization Energy Family IIA Family IA

24 Electronegativity Family IIA Family IA

25 Alkaline Earth Metals Lab
An element that is highly reactive tends to gain or lose electrons very easily. A precipitate is an insoluble solid formed as a result of a chemical reaction. In this lab, magnesium formed the least number of precipitates, while barium formed the greatest number of precipitates. Why do you think reactivity increases down a family???


27 Metals Found to LEFT of zigzag line on table
Good conductors of heat & electricity Malleable (can hammer into thin sheet without breaking) Ductile (can pull into thin wire without breaking) High melting & boiling points Shiny in luster Tend to lose electrons

28 Nonmetals Found to RIGHT of zigzag line on table
Poor conductors of heat & electricity Brittle when solid (break irregularly) Dull in luster Low melting & boiling points Tend to gain electrons

29 Metalloids aka Semi-Metals
Found along both sides of zigzag line, with exception of Al and Po Properties of both metals & nonmetals Okay conductors of heat & electricity Shiny or dull

30 Who am I? Use the clues and a periodic table to predict the element.
The number of clues is shown in the lower right corner.

31 1. Who am I? Very good ability to conduct electricity
Never found alone in nature When combined with other elements, usually give up 1 valence electron Only one letter in symbol 4 clues

32 2. Who am I? More valence electrons than oxygen
More protons than calcium Fewer protons than krypton 3 clues

33 3. Who am I? Poor conductor Usually found as a gas
Do not bond well with others Sometimes found in signs outside restaurants 4 clues

34 4. Who am I? Second lowest electronegativity of period
One of most reactive in family Not radioactive Add 50 protons and I’m now another element in my family 4 clues

35 5. Who am I? Usually found as a gas Very reactive
Lightest element in family Often form -1 ion 4 clues

36 6. Who am I? Radioactive Highest atomic radius in family
Usually form -2 ion 3 clues

37 7. Who am I? Never found alone or unbonded in nature
Most commonly form +2 ion Second highest number of protons in family 3 clues

38 8. Who am I? All other members of family are metals
Most abundant element in universe 2 clues

39 9. Who am I? Metals, nonmetals, and semi-metals all found in family
Same number of protons as the sum of the protons in the two elements directly above 2 clues

40 10. Who am I? Highest ionization energy in family
Family contains metals, nonmetals, and semi-metals Can form positive or negative ion 3 clues

41 Once you have finished, check your answers with a peer.
That’s All Folks! Once you have finished, check your answers with a peer.

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