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The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Chapter 6. Section 6.1: Development of the Modern Periodic Table Late 1790s- Lavoisier compiled a list of 23 elements.

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Presentation on theme: "The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Chapter 6. Section 6.1: Development of the Modern Periodic Table Late 1790s- Lavoisier compiled a list of 23 elements."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Chapter 6

2 Section 6.1: Development of the Modern Periodic Table Late 1790s- Lavoisier compiled a list of 23 elements known at the time Late 1790s- Lavoisier compiled a list of 23 elements known at the time By 1870- 70 known elements By 1870- 70 known elements John Newlands John Newlands Arranged elements by increasing atomic mass Arranged elements by increasing atomic mass Noticed properties repeated every eighth element (periodic) Noticed properties repeated every eighth element (periodic) Law of Octaves Law of Octaves

3 Dmitri Mendeleev Russian Russian 1 st periodic table 1 st periodic table Organized elements by properties Organized elements by properties Arranged elements by atomic mass Arranged elements by atomic mass Predicted existence of several unknown elements Predicted existence of several unknown elements Element 101 Mendeleevium (Md) Element 101 Mendeleevium (Md)

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5 Henry Moseley 1913-performs experiments to determine the atomic number of the known elements 1913-performs experiments to determine the atomic number of the known elements Afterwards arranges the elements in the periodic table listing them by increasing atomic number instead of by mass Afterwards arranges the elements in the periodic table listing them by increasing atomic number instead of by mass

6 Periodic Law When the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties

7 The Modern Periodic Table Groups- aka families (vertical columns) Groups- aka families (vertical columns) Each group is numbered 1-8 followed by the letter A or B Each group is numbered 1-8 followed by the letter A or B Representative Elements- designated with an A (1A-8A) Representative Elements- designated with an A (1A-8A) Transition Elements- designated with a B (3B-12B) Transition Elements- designated with a B (3B-12B) 18 total groups 18 total groups elements of any one group have similar physical and chemical properties elements of any one group have similar physical and chemical properties

8 Periods- horizontal rows Periods- horizontal rows 7 total periods 7 total periods element properties change as you go across each row element properties change as you go across each row the pattern of properties repeats from one period to the next the pattern of properties repeats from one period to the next

9 Classifying the Elements Three main classifications for the elements Three main classifications for the elements Metals Metals Nonmetals Nonmetals Metalloids Metalloids

10 Metals Physical Properties Physical Properties Luster (shininess) Luster (shininess) Good conductors of heat and electricity Good conductors of heat and electricity High density (heavy for their size) High density (heavy for their size) High melting point High melting point Ductile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) Ductile (most metals can be drawn out into thin wires) Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets) Malleable (most metals can be hammered into thin sheets) Chemical Properties Chemical Properties Easily lose valence electrons Easily lose valence electrons Corrode easily Corrode easily Alkali Metals- group 1A elements (except hydrogen) Alkali Metals- group 1A elements (except hydrogen) Alkaline Earth Metals- group 2A elements Alkaline Earth Metals- group 2A elements

11 Metals Cont. Transition Metals Transition Metals Group B elements Group B elements Inner Transition Metals Inner Transition Metals Lanthanide- used as phosphors (substances that emit light when struck by electrons) Lanthanide- used as phosphors (substances that emit light when struck by electrons) Actinide Actinide

12 Nonmetals Physical Properties Physical Properties No luster (dull appearance) No luster (dull appearance) Poor conductor of heat and electricity Poor conductor of heat and electricity Brittle (breaks easily) or gaseous Brittle (breaks easily) or gaseous Not ductile Not ductile Not malleable Not malleable Low density Low density Low melting point Low melting point Bromine is the only nonmetal liquid at room temperature Bromine is the only nonmetal liquid at room temperature Chemical Properties Chemical Properties Tend to gain valence electrons Tend to gain valence electrons

13 Nonmetals Cont Halogens Halogens Group 7A Group 7A Extremely Reactive Extremely Reactive Noble Gases Noble Gases Group 8A Group 8A Extremely Unreactive Extremely Unreactive

14 Metalloids Bordering the stair-step line Bordering the stair-step line Physical Properties Physical Properties Solids Solids Can be shiny or dull Can be shiny or dull Ductile Ductile Malleable Malleable Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals

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17 Elements in the same group on the periodic table have similar chemical properties because they have the same valence electron configuration Elements in the same group on the periodic table have similar chemical properties because they have the same valence electron configuration

18 Section 6.3: Periodic Trends The electron cloud surrounding the nucleus is based on the probability and does not have a clearly defined edge The electron cloud surrounding the nucleus is based on the probability and does not have a clearly defined edge Atomic size is defined by how closely an atoms lies to a neighboring atom Atomic size is defined by how closely an atoms lies to a neighboring atom

19 Atomic Radii Trend Trends within periods Trends within periods Generally decreases as you move left-to- right across a period (row) Generally decreases as you move left-to- right across a period (row) Trends within groups Trends within groups Generally increases as you move down a group Generally increases as you move down a group

20 Ionic Radius An ion is an atom or a bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge An ion is an atom or a bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge When atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions, they always become smaller When atoms lose electrons and form positively charged ions, they always become smaller When atoms gain electrons and form negatively charged ions, they always become larger When atoms gain electrons and form negatively charged ions, they always become larger

21 Lose Electrons Smaller ionic radii Gain Electrons larger ionic radii

22 Ionization Energy (I.E.) Ionization Energy- the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom Ionization Energy- the energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom 1 st Ionization Energy- removes the 1 st electron 1 st Ionization Energy- removes the 1 st electron 2 nd Ionization Energy- removes the 2 nd electron… and so forth 2 nd Ionization Energy- removes the 2 nd electron… and so forth I.E. is an indication on how strongly an atoms nucleus holds onto its valence electrons I.E. is an indication on how strongly an atoms nucleus holds onto its valence electrons

23 Octet Rule- atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of eight valence electrons

24 Hydrogen and Helium are exceptions (theyll be happy with 2 V.E.) Determines the types of ions likely to form Elements on the right side tend to gain electrons Elements on the left side tend to lose electrons

25 Electronegativity Indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond Indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond Noble gases form very few compounds so they are left out Noble gases form very few compounds so they are left out In a chemical bond, the atom with the greater electronegativity more strongly attracts the bonds electrons In a chemical bond, the atom with the greater electronegativity more strongly attracts the bonds electrons

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27 In Summary Atomic radius decreases Ionization energy increases Electronegativity increases Atomic radius increases Ionization energy decreases Electronegativity decreases 1A 2A3A4A 5A 6A7A 0

28 Matching Words for Test Electronegativity Electronegativity Ionization energy Ionization energy Atomic radius Atomic radius Metal Metal Transition metal Transition metal Anion Anion Periodic law Periodic law Cation Cation Period Period Group Group Electrons Electrons Nonmetal Nonmetal

29 Homework Page 174-175 Page 174-175 #29-#38 #29-#38 #40-#45 #40-#45 #47-#76 #47-#76


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