Presentation on theme: "Civilization in Mesopotamia Lesson 1 Why do people today try new ways of doing things?"— Presentation transcript:
Civilization in Mesopotamia Lesson 1 Why do people today try new ways of doing things?
Fertile Crescent Location – southwestern Asia Starts on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea goes to Persian Gulf Shaped like a quarter moon that curves around the Syrian Desert In present day Iraq and Syria Rich farm land attracted new settlers to the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Region was called Mesopotamia – “the land between the rivers” Where is Mesopotamia located?
SUMER One of the earliest cities that formed a civilization
Architecture and Religious Beliefs A ziggurat was the largest building in Sumerian society. Made of mud-brick and stood as tall as seven stories high. The top section was a shrine for the city’s special god. A ziggurat was at the center of each city-state. Describe a ziggurat.
The Ancient Sumerians believed that by pleasing the Gods, they would have good harvest. Enlil: the god of winds, storm, and rain Ea: the god of the waters and wisdom Who were the gods the Sumerians prayed to?
THE ROLE of GOVERNMENT With large numbers of people living and working together, order is needed. Sumer had 12 independent city-states. Each city-state was run by a group of leaders with one chief leader. In times of peril(war) leaders have difficulty agreeing, so a monarchy was formed. MONO – means one Describe the government of the Sumerians.
ECONOMICS AND THE SUMERIAN CITY-STATE OF URUK Uruk’s population grew to 60,000. Success was because of agriculture / surplus Gave more free time, which led to different jobs craft workers, clay, pottery, stone, metal A complex division of labor developed Trade begins and some people became merchants What led to a complex division of labor?
DIVISION IN SOICETY Nobles – kings, priests, and important leaders and their families UPPER CLASS Merchants, Craft workers, and Managers – artists,carpenters, potters, bricklayers, doctors & scribes MIDDLE CLASS Laborers and Slaves – unskilled workers LOWER CLASS What were the divisions of Sumerian society?
NEW INNOVATIONS Dikes and canals - invented to prevent the rivers from flooding. Wheel – made possible other inventions Wheeled cart – domesticated animals could pull heavy loads. Iqu – acre (measured land) Quart – used to measure grain Cuneiform – wedge shaped writing What were some new technologies and innovations of the ancient Sumerians?