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Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) Nuclear Waste Management in Europe – and the Swiss Model EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste.

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Presentation on theme: "Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) Nuclear Waste Management in Europe – and the Swiss Model EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste."— Presentation transcript:

1 Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) Nuclear Waste Management in Europe – and the Swiss Model EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK)

2 2 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Origin of Radioactive Waste Medicine, Industry, Research Operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) Decommissioning of NPPs Operation of spent fuel reprocessing facilities Uranium mining and milling Military applications

3 3 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Categories of Radioactive Waste High-level waste (HLW, includes spent fuel, SF) Intermediate-level waste (ILW) (additional ILW category in Switzerland called -bearing waste) Low-level waste (LLW) Very low-level waste (VLLW) Indicators: Activity level of the waste (also heat generation) Half-life of the radionuclides

4 4 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Radioactive Waste Management (1) Radioactive Waste: Conditioning of radioactive waste into a transportable and storable (and disposable) form Incineration if possible (volume reduction, elimination of organic material) Interim storage, pending final disposal Spent nuclear fuel (SF): either Reprocessing Retrieval of uranium and plutonium Interim storage of residues (HLW, ILW, LLW), pending final disposal or Interim storage, pending final disposal

5 5 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Radioactive Waste Management (2) Can radioactive waste be destroyed? Transmutation of radionuclides Transformation of long-lived into short-lived radionuclides Separation of radionuclides (partitioning) is required Only meaningful for HLW Would reduce the quantity of HLW Would require a special reprocessing facility In case of successful large scale transmutation, HLW repositories will still be necessary Transmutation research still at an early stage

6 6 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Disposal of Radioactive Waste International consensus about waste disposal: Objective of waste disposal: Isolation of waste to prevent undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment Disposal means: no intention for retrieval, although such a possibility is not ruled out Near surface disposal for LLW and ILW containing limited amounts of long lived radionuclides Geological disposal for HLW and long lived ILW, provides long-term isolation from the biosphere

7 7 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) The Situation in Europe (1) Radioactive waste repositories in operation: Finland:Olkiluoto (LILW, since 1992) Loviisa (LLW, since 1998) France:Centre de lAube (LILW, since 1992) Morvilliers (VLLW, since 2003) Spain:El Cabril (LILW, since 1992) Sweden:Forsmark (LILW, since 1988) UK:Dounreay (LLW, since 1957) Drigg (LLW, since 1959)

8 8 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) The Situation in Europe (2) Other existing repositories or disposal facilities: Germany:Asse (LILW testing facility, ) Morsleben (LILW, ) France:Centre de la Manche (LILW, ) Disposal of HLW: Interim storage of SF required for cooling Potential host rocks considered or investigated: Clay (e.g., Belgium, France, Spain, Switzerland) Granite (e.g., Finland, Hungary, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland) Salt dome (e.g., Germany, Spain)

9 9 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) The Joint Convention 44 Contracting Parties (24 EU countries) Obligation to establish and maintain a legislative and regulatory framework to govern safety Obligation to ensure that individuals, society and the environment are adequately protected Appropriate siting, design and construction of facilities Ensuring safety of facilities during operation and after closure Publication of National Reports; review meetings in 3-year intervals (2003, 2006, next one in 2009), good practices / potential for improvement

10 10 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) The Swiss Waste Management Concept

11 11 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Legal Requirements in Switzerland Polluter pays principle Waste producers responsible for safe management Federal state responsible for waste from medicine, industry and research Waste management and decommissioning funds Disposal in Switzerland Deep geological repositories for all waste types Surveillance phase with retrievability option Site selection according to federal planning process General licence: Optional national referendum

12 12 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Demonstration of HLW disposal feasibility (1)

13 13 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Demonstration of HLW disposal feasibility (2) Reviewing organizations: Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA) Commission on Nuclear Waste Management (KNE) International Review Team of OECD/NEA Result of the reviews: Site demonstration: fulfilled Feasibility demonstration: fulfilled Safety demonstration: fulfilled Approval of feasibility demonstration by Federal government in June 2006 BUT: site demonstration site selection

14 14 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Site selection procedure Objectives of sectoral plan: Consideration of all interests and concerns by involving society, including regions, cantons and neighboring countries Fair and transparent step-by-step procedure Open information policy Principles of sectoral plan: Safety has top priority Societal, economic and spatial aspects come second to safety Site selection procedure according to the land use planning legislation (sectoral plan):

15 15 EPP-ED Hearing on the Future of Nuclear Waste Management, European Parliament, Brussels, 3 July 2007 Hans Wanner (HSK, Switzerland) Envisaged timetable (CH) 2007Approval of site selection concept by Federal Council Identification of potential regions (2-3 years) Identification of potential sites (2-3 years) Selection of final site (3-5 years) 2016/2020Granting of general licence by Federal Council, approval by Parliament, optional national referendum from 2020Licensing procedure for construction and operation from 2030Operation of LILW repository from 2040Operation of HLW repository


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