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Presentation on theme: "1 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (PART 1) A RAHMAN RWE NUKEM Ltd (UK)"— Presentation transcript:


2 2 Decommissioning Facility or Installation to be decommissioned Removal from regulatory controls

3 3 Cessation of Operation Nuclear fuel – irradiated (SNF) and un- irradiated Stored radioactive materials Various types of contaminated materials – systems, equipment, components etc Contaminated buildings and structures Contaminated soil

4 4 Radioactive Waste Management What is radioactive waste? Where from does it arise? Waste classification Regulatory aspects Management of radwaste  Treatment and conditioning  Storage and transportation  Disposal

5 5 Radioactive Substance Radioactive material Radioactive waste

6 6 Radioactive Material / Radioactive Waste Radioactive material – activity level higher than the minimum activity level and of some value to the owner Radioactive waste – activity level higher than the minimum activity level, but of no further value to the owner

7 7 Specific activity limits for radioactive substances Specific ActivityCountryAdditional information (Bq.g -1 ) 1.00Belgium Specific activity in solids from  /  emitters 0.04  -emitters 0.40  /  emitters 0.10Germany Specific activity from types of emitters (scrap metals from nuclear facilities) 1.00 Specific activity from all types of emitters (reuse / recycle of metals) 1.00Italy Specific activity from  /  emitters

8 8 Specific activity limits for radioactive substances Specific Activity (Bq.g -1 ) CountryAdditional information 0.10Slovakia Specific activity for  /  emitters 0.10Sweden Specific activity for all types (above natural activity in similar materials) 0.40UK Specific activity for all types of emission in solids if insoluble in water. For liquids and gases, concentrations are much lower.

9 9 Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities Following cessation of operation, it involves: Decontamination Dismantling Removal of radioactive and non- radioactive materials Restoration of site for unrestricted (sometimes restricted) use Regulators approval - delicensing

10 10 Work Organization Dismantling Cutting Temporary storage Sorting TreatmentCharacterizationEvacuation Identification

11 11 Classification of Radioactive Waste Wastes may be classified on:  Activity concentration  Half lives  Heat generation capability  Source or origin  Material composition  Physical state  Radio-toxicity

12 12 Waste Classification Scheme Waste classification may be on:  Storage consideration  Disposal consideration In the UK – storage consideration based on activity concentration IAEA – disposal consideration based on half lives In France – hybrid of the two

13 13 UK Waste Classification Waste Class Characteristics VLLW0.4 Bq g -1 < A < 4 Bq.g -1 or 40 kBq of  /  per single item LLW 4 Bq g -1 < A < 4 kBq.g -1 of  or 12 kBq.g -1 of  /  ILWA is higher than LLW but no heat generation HLW orA is higher than ILW or of heat HGWgenerating

14 14 United Kingdom

15 15 IAEA Waste Classification Waste Class Characteristics Exempt Waste A < clearance level or dose < 10  Sv y -1 LILW A>clearance level, P<2kWm -3 LILW-SL(1) Mainly short lived A, long lived A<400Bq g -1 LILW-LL(2) Mainly long lived A HLW(2) A is long lived, P > 2 kW m -3

16 16 Type C Type B Type A FA and TFA Waste classification in France Half life Short (t 1/2 < 30 y)Long (t 1/2 > 30 y) Category A < 100 Bq.g -1 100 < A < 3.7 kBq.g -1 for  Low thermal output

17 17 Principles of waste management Waste minimisation Sustainable development Polluter pays principle

18 18 Regulatory regimes International  IAEA Joint Convention  IAEA Transport Regulations European National

19 19 The Joint Convention ‘ The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management’ Individuals, society and the environment to be adequately protected from spent fuel Burden of future generation must not exceed that of present generation

20 20 Major elements of the Convention Legislative and regulatory framework (Article 19) Human and financial resources (Article 22) Radiation protection (Article 24)  Fully consistent with ICRP-60 Decommissioning (Article 26) Trans-boundary movement of waste (Article 27)

21 21 Environmental discharge Excluded source Exemption levels Clearance levels

22 22 Generic materials (radiation sources) Regulatory control Authorized disposal Clearance Authorized recycle or reuse Regulatory Options for radiation sources Options for wastes or materials after their main use Exclusion Exemption Options for radiation source control Management of low activity substance

23 23 Exclusion of sources Risks are trivial Not amenable to control Difficult to monitor Impossible to implement

24 24 Exemption levels Sources are exempt from regulatory controls regarding registration and notification for use and accumulation if  individual risks low to be of no regulatory concern  collective risks low  no likelihood of untoward consequences

25 25 Exemption levels E  10 μSv.y -1 ; geometric mean of 3 μSv.y -1 and 30 μSv.y -1 collective dose commitment  1 man- Sv.y -1

26 26 Exemption levels Radionuclide ConcentrationTotal activity (Bq.g -1 ) (Bq) H-3 1.0E+061.0E+09 C-14 1.0E+041.0E+07 Co-60 1.0E+011.0E+05 Ni-63 1.0E+051.0E+08 I-131 1.0E+021.0E+06 U-235 1.0E+011.0E+04 Pu-239 1.0E+001.0E+04

27 27 Clearance levels Sources are released from regulatory controls on  General clearance for recycle, reuse or disposal without restrictions  Specific clearance with release terms specified

28 28 Clearance levels Effective dose, E = 10 μSv.y -1 Collective dose = 1 man-Sv.y -1 Clearance level  exemption level


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