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Testing the AGN unified model using spectropolarimetry Cristina Ramos Almeida Andrés Asensio Ramos, María Jesús Martínez González, Rafael Manso Sáinz,

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Presentation on theme: "Testing the AGN unified model using spectropolarimetry Cristina Ramos Almeida Andrés Asensio Ramos, María Jesús Martínez González, Rafael Manso Sáinz,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Testing the AGN unified model using spectropolarimetry Cristina Ramos Almeida Andrés Asensio Ramos, María Jesús Martínez González, Rafael Manso Sáinz, José Antonio Acosta Pulido & the CanariCam AGN team Los Piratas

2 Torus dust grains absorb optical & UV photons from matter accretion re-emission in the infrared (peaking at mid-IR 5-30 μm). Dust distributed in clumps instead of homogeneously filling torus volume (Nenkova et al. 2002; Hönig et al. 2006; Schartmann et al. 2008). Modeling Clumpy Torus Models Nenkova et al. (2002) 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida

3 IR range (mid-IR) key to constrain parameters of torus models. Goal: isolation of torus emission (R o < 10 pc; interferometry & mid-IR). Large aperture data (e.g. ISO, Spitzer, IRAS) contaminated with circunnuclear stellar emission. High-spatial resolution infrared observations (e.g., CanariCam, T-ReCS, Michelle, VISIR) key to isolate torus emission. Observations Isolation of Torus emission 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida

4 Observations Isolation of Torus emission 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida 85 cm Spitzer 8 m Gemini

5 Mid-IR imaging: space (Spitzer/IRAC) vs. ground (Gemini/T-ReCS) observations Díaz-Santos (2009, PhD)

6 Ground-based subarcsecond resolution mid-IR imaging data for 21 nearby Seyfert galaxies. Compilation of near-IR nuclear fluxes from the literature of similar resolutions as mid-IR data. Herschel far-IR data also available (GT + GO programmes). AGN-dominated SEDs = torus emission (Sy2) & torus+AGN emission (Sy1). 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida RA et al. 2009, 2011; Alonso-Herrero et al Observations

7 NIR + MIR spectral energy distributions Results 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida

8 Bayesian code to fit the clumpy models of Nenkova et al. 2008a,b. PCA decomposition + Neural networks to approximate Clumpy Database (6 parameters-based models). Solution to the Clumpy Database degeneracy Possibility of interpolating within the database Simultaneous fit of both SED + spectrum Prediction of next observation to add to SED Available for the astrophysical community Asensio Ramos & Ramos Almeida 2009, 2012 SED modelling BayesClumpy 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida

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10 Circinus 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida MIR data from T-ReCS /Gemini-South (Packham et al. 2005; RA et al ) NIR data from NACO / VLT (Prieto et al. 2010) NGC 7469

11 Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different? Results 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida NIR+MIR emission reproduced with small tori (R o < 6 pc)

12 Sy1 tori covering factors < Sy2 tori covering factors Sy1 Sy1 Sy2 Sy2 Sy1 photon escape prob. > Sy2 photon escape prob. Results 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

13 Results 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Lawrence & Elvis (2010) -Highly inclined Seyfert 1 tori: Bi-conical outflows (SINFONI; Müller-Sanchez et al. 2011) Accretion disk orientation from X-ray data (Nandra et al. 2007) -Expected from warped disk torus models (Lawrence & Elvis 2010) -also from X-ray observations of Seyfert galaxies (Ricci et al. 2011) Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

14 If all Seyfert nuclei are identical, as simple unification predicts, only the viewing angle determines the classification. Our results suggest that the classification as Type-1 or Type-2 may also depend on the intrinsic properties of the torus. Results 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Schartmann et al. (2008) Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

15 Origin of unification scheme for Seyfert galaxies (Antonucci & Miller 1985) detection of polarized broad lines in NGC 1068 nuclei. Only 30-50% of nearby Sy2s show a Sy1-type polarized spectrum (Tran 2001). Implications? –1) not all Seyferts harbour a hidden BLR (Tran 2001, 2003; Gu & Huang 2002) –2) distribution of dust within the torus and its inclination not as simple as predicted by the unified model. Project 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

16 Results from our modelling with torus models could explain lack of polarized broad lines in 50-70% of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies. The torus has to have a determined orientation (close to edge-on) and enough clumps to make the broad lines visible in polarized light. GALAXYNGC 7582IC 5063 POLARIZED BROAD LINES i FROM MODELLING43°± 19° 22° 81°± 5° 8° Project 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

17 Results from our modelling with torus models could explain lack of polarized broad lines in 50-70% of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies. The torus has to have a determined orientation (close to edge-on) and enough clumps to make the broad lines visible in polarized light. NGC 7582 IC 5063 POLARIZED BROAD LINES i FROM MODELLING81°± 5° 8° 43°± 19° 22° Project 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

18 Results from our modelling with torus models could explain lack of polarized broad lines in 50-70% of nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies. The torus has to have a determined orientation (close to edge-on) and enough clumps to make the broad lines visible in polarized light. Comparison between RA11+AH11 results and a homogeneous data set of spectropolarimetric data. Project 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

19 Homogeneous dataset of polarized optical spectra of a representative sample of Seyfert galaxies for which we have constraints on their torus properties. ISIS/WHT observations scheduled in Jan objects. FORS2/VLT observations requested in 2013A 18 objects. Sample contains similar numbers of Seyfert 1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.9 and 2 types study how polarization signal varies between types. Futre observations 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida Are the obscuring tori of Type 1 and 2 Seyferts different?

20 1.Analize in a consistent way linear polarization signal and high angular resolution infrared data using torus models. 2.Confirm whether or not the lack of polarized broad lines in % of Sy2 population due to low torus inclinations and/or small covering factors. 3.Directly compare between linear polarization signal in Sy1s and Sy2s. Futre observations 16th October - Polarization & AGN Cristina Ramos Almeida GOALS

21 Thanks!


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