2 How do living things get energy? Living things get the ENERGY they need from the breakdown of glucose (sugar)ATP=Energy
3 Question:In what kinds organisms does cellular respiration take place?
4 Cellular respiration take place in Plants and Animals Plants – Autotrophs: self-producers.Animals - Heterotrophs: consumers.
5 Cellular Energy All organisms need a source of energy. Heterotrophs use the organic compounds in food for energy sources.Before energy in complex carbohydrates can be used by cells, it must be broken down into simple sugars like glucose.This breakdown of glucose is done byour digestive system.
8 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy The process that releases energy (ATP) by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen.Requires food molecules ex: Glucose (sugar) and Oxygen. Gives off carbon dioxide, water, and Energy.C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + energyglucoseATP
9 Summary All our cells need energy ATP is the energy that the cells use for all life processes.The cell makes ATP by breaking down a sugar called glucose.Glucose is the energy of the body.ATP is the energy of the cell
10 Steps in cellular respiration Step one: is always Glycolysis.Glyco = sugar : lysis= breaking/ splitGlycolysis is splitting glucoseStep two: depends on whether oxygen is present or not.
11 Step One GlycolysisGlycolysis is the process in which one molecule of glucose (6 Carbons) is broken “in half”, producing two molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound.Occurs in CYTOPLASM of cell. Video Clip
12 Glycolysis 2 ATP needed to begin glycolysis. 4 ATP produced when its done.NET gain 2 ATP. (4 – 2 = 2)NADH is an electron carrier.Glycolysis starts w/ ONE GLUCOSEEnds with TWO PYRUVIC ACIDVideo clip
13 Step Two Oxygen Present or not? (No) If oxygen is not present (anaerobic) Step two is Fermentation(Yes) If Oxygen is PRESENT (aerobic) step two is the Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
14 Fermentation (without oxygen) Chemical PathwaysGlucoseKrebs cycleElectron transportGlycolysisAlcohol or lactic acidFermentation (without oxygen)
15 Oxygen is not present. Fermentation: Two types of fermentation1. Alcoholic FermentationUsed by Yeast and a few other microorganisms.Produces alcohol and carbon dioxide from the three carbon pyruvic acid.2. Lactic Acid FermentationUsed by Bacteria and human muscle cells.Produces lactic acid from the three carbon pyruvic acid.
16 Oxygen is present Krebs Cycle- Step 2 Electron Transport Chain- Step 3 Occurs in mitochondria (matrix)2 molecules of ATP is generated per glucose.CO2 is produced and released.Electron Transport Chain- Step 3Takes place in mitochondria (inner membrane).32 molecules of ATP are produced per glucose molecule.
17 Krebs Cycle (Step 2 oxygen) When oxygen is present such as in muscles, step two in cellular respiration is the Krebs CycleOccurs in mitochondriaPyruvic acid is changed in a series of reactions.These reactions produce high-energy electron carriers to be used in the electron transport chainNAD+ and FAD+ are the high energy electron carriersH+ is the electron that needs to be carried.They turn into NADH and FADH2 when carrying electrons and provide the energy to drive the Electron Transport Chain.2 molecules of ATP is generated per glucose.CO2 is produced and released.
18 Electron Transport Chain (Step 3 Oxygen) Takes place in mitochondria (inner membrane).Series of proteins accept high energy electron pairs from NADH and FADH2.NADH and FADH2 (Energy taxi dropping off energy)Oxygen bonds with 2 hydrogens (final electron acceptor) to form H2032 molecules of ATP are produced per glucose molecule.
19 ATP TOTAL ATP YIELD 02 ATP –Glycolysis 02 ATP Krebs 32 ATP - ETC 36 ATP - TOTAL NetATP
20 In Mitochondria with oxygen present In CytoplasmNADH and FADH2Krebs CycleElectron TransportGlycolysis2 ATP2 ATP32 ATP
21 Electrons carried in NADH in NADH andFADH2Pyruvic acidGlucoseGlycolysisCytoplasmCellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen. Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. The Krebs cycle and electron transport take place inside the mitochondria.Mitochondrion2232
23 Summary Step one is always glycolysis. Step two depends on whether or not oxygen is present.If it is not, then step two is fermentation, (anaerobic respiration)If it is, then step two is the Krebs Cycle and step 3 is the electron transport chain.In the process, organic glucose is converted to inorganic CO2
24 If oxygen is present, its called Aerobic respiration, and 36 ATP are created. During anaerobic respiration or fermentation, 2 ATP are created.ATP is the universal energy molecule, meaning that all living organism use it as an energy source.Notice that much more ATP is made when oxygen is present.
25 How does glucose get into the body? Through the foods you eat.You eat a piece of bread, which is made of large carbohydrate molecules.Your body breaks the large carbs into tiny sugars during digestion.It starts with the saliva in the mouth, then in the stomach and finally as the food passes through intestines.When the carbs reach the large intestines, they are broken down so small that they get absorbed in the blood. The small sugars are monosaccharidesGlucose is one of these monosaccharides.The red blood cells then carry the small sugars to the cells that need them.
26 Identify the cellular process that most likely produced the CO2 in the body cell Explain why carbon dioxide moves into red blood cells by diffusion rather than active transport.