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Morphology General Zoology, 24 January 2011 Donald Winslow Readings from Hickman et al. 2011: Ch. 9 pp 185-189, 191-193, 195-196.

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Presentation on theme: "Morphology General Zoology, 24 January 2011 Donald Winslow Readings from Hickman et al. 2011: Ch. 9 pp 185-189, 191-193, 195-196."— Presentation transcript:

1 Morphology General Zoology, 24 January 2011 Donald Winslow Readings from Hickman et al. 2011: Ch. 9 pp , ,

2 Morphology Biological hierarchy Grades of organization & body plans Describing locations on animal bodies Body cavities & germ layers Developmental patterns Histology Body size

3 Biological hierarchy Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Population Community Nine-banded armadillo

4 Grades of organization Protoplasmic (e.g. protozoa) Cellular (e.g. colonial protists, sponges) Tissue or cell-tissue (e.g. jellyfish) Organ or tissue-organ (e.g. flatworm) Organ system (e.g. molluscs, arthropods) Luna moth

5 Body plans Unicellular protists vs multicellular animals –Protozoa vs Metazoa Cell-level vs tissue-level organization –Porifera vs Eumetazoa Radial symmetry vs bilateral symmetry Sac vs tube-within-a-tube digestive tracts Acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, coelomate

6 Patterns of symmetry Bilateral symmetryRadial symmetry Photo by Richard Snow

7 Describing location on animal Anterior/posterior Dorsal/ventral Medial/lateral Distal/proximal Frontal, sagittal, and transverse planes

8 Body cavities Blastocoel Gastrocoel (archenteron) Pseudocoel Coelom

9 Germ layers Endoderm Mesoderm Ectoderm

10 Developmental patterns Cleavageradial or spiral Gastrulation (germ layer formation) Diploblastic or triploblastic Protostome or deuterostome Metamerism (segmentation)

11 Histology Blood plasma and interstitial fluids Tissues Endoderm epithelium of digestive tract Ectoderm skin & nervous tissue Mesoderm connective tissue, muscles, viscera –Connective tissue: »collagen, blood, lymph, cartilage, bone, fat

12 Advantages & disadvantages of large body size Predators can subdue larger prey, But larger prey cant hide as easily. Larger animals have efficient metabolism, But use more energy. Larger animals have longer generations.

13 Humpback whale


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