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Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization Chapter 7 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization Chapter 7 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization Chapter 7 Notes

2 Classification Review Taxonomic Hierarchy Nomenclature

3 Review What are the three Domains? What are the six Kingdoms?

4 Domains & Kingdoms BacteriaArcheaEukarya BacteriaArcheaPlantae Fungi Protista Animalia

5 Eukaryotes PlantaeFungiProtistaAnimalia Multicellular UnicellularMulticellular Cell wall Some have cell wallNo cell wall AutotrophicHeterotrophicAuto/HeterotrophicHeterotrophic Non motile Motile

6 Patterns of Organization Symmetry – parts of an organism are equally arranged around a point or axis – Bilateral symmetry: A single plane divides the organism into right and left mirror images – Ex: humans, dogs, fish, kangaroo, vertebrates – Radial symmetry: Any plane passing through the central axis divides the organism into a mirror image – Ex: Sea Urchins, Jelly Fish, sea anemones, Echinoderms – Sea Star = “Penta-radial” Asymmetry – absence of symmetry – Ex: sponges

7 Cephalization The formation of a distinct head Only occurs in animals

8 Terms of Direction Aboral – End opposite of mouth Oral – Mouth end Anterior – front Posterior – behind Dorsal – backside Ventral – belly side Cephalic – towards head Caudle – towards tail Superior – above Inferior – below Medial – along the symmetry plane Lateral – away from the symmetry plane Distal – away from point of attachment Proximal – toward point of attachment


10 Other Patterns of Organization Unicellular Level of Organization – Protists – Must provide for the functions of Locomotion Food acquisition Digestion Water and ion regulation Sensory perception Reproduction Diploblastic Level of Organization Triploblastic Level of Organization

11 Diploblastic Organization Simplest tissue-level organization Tissues derived from two embryological layers – Ectoderm – gives rise to epidermis; outer layer Epithelial cells - the epidermis or skin Brain nervous system – Endoderm – gives rise to gastrodermis, tissue that lines the gut cavity lining of the stomach & intestines – Middle Layer = Mesoglea; noncellular

12 Triploblastic Organization Tissues derived from three embryological layers – Ectoderm – Mesoderm – gives rise to supportive tissues (bones), contractile tissues (muscles), and blood cells. – Endoderm – Most organisms with this level of organization develop organ systems. Excretory, nervous, digestive, reproductive, circulatory systems

13 Triploblastic Animals are further Organized based on… Presence or Absence of a Body Cavity Acoelomate – solid mass/without cavity Pseudocoelomate - body cavity not entirely lined by mesoderm Coelomate – body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm Coelom = Cavity

14 Protostomes & Deuterostomes Protostomes Mouth forms from an embryonic blastopore – Blastopore: an indention in the blastula – Blastula: an early stage in the development of an embryo Sphere of cells enclosing a fluid filled cavity Ex: Platyhelminthes, Nematodes, Molluscs, Annelids, and Arthropods Deuterostomes Anus forms from an embryonic blastospore Ex: Echinoderms, Hemichordates, Chordates

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