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Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization

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Presentation on theme: "Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification, Phylogeny, & Organization
Chapter 7 Notes

2 Classification Review
Taxonomic Hierarchy Nomenclature

3 Review What are the three Domains? What are the six Kingdoms?

4 Domains & Kingdoms Bacteria Archea Eukarya Plantae Fungi Protista

5 Eukaryotes Plantae Fungi Protista Animalia Multicellular Unicellular
Cell wall Some have cell wall No cell wall Autotrophic Heterotrophic Auto/Heterotrophic Non motile Motile

6 Patterns of Organization
Symmetry – parts of an organism are equally arranged around a point or axis Bilateral symmetry: A single plane divides the organism into right and left mirror images Ex: humans, dogs, fish, kangaroo , vertebrates Radial symmetry: Any plane passing through the central axis divides the organism into a mirror image Ex: Sea Urchins, Jelly Fish, sea anemones, Echinoderms Sea Star = “Penta-radial” Asymmetry – absence of symmetry Ex: sponges

7 Cephalization The formation of a distinct head Only occurs in animals

8 Terms of Direction Aboral – End opposite of mouth Oral – Mouth end
Anterior – front Posterior – behind Dorsal – backside Ventral – belly side Cephalic – towards head Caudle – towards tail Superior – above Inferior – below Medial – along the symmetry plane Lateral – away from the symmetry plane Distal – away from point of attachment Proximal – toward point of attachment


10 Other Patterns of Organization
Unicellular Level of Organization Protists Must provide for the functions of Locomotion Food acquisition Digestion Water and ion regulation Sensory perception Reproduction Diploblastic Level of Organization Triploblastic Level of Organization

11 Diploblastic Organization
Simplest tissue-level organization Tissues derived from two embryological layers Ectoderm – gives rise to epidermis; outer layer Epithelial cells - the epidermis or skin Brain nervous system Endoderm – gives rise to gastrodermis, tissue that lines the gut cavity lining of the stomach & intestines Middle Layer = Mesoglea; noncellular

12 Triploblastic Organization
Tissues derived from three embryological layers Ectoderm Mesoderm – gives rise to supportive tissues (bones), contractile tissues (muscles), and blood cells. Endoderm Most organisms with this level of organization develop organ systems. Excretory, nervous, digestive, reproductive, circulatory systems 1st Hour Left off here

13 Triploblastic Animals are further Organized based on…
Presence or Absence of a Body Cavity Acoelomate – solid mass/without cavity Pseudocoelomate - body cavity not entirely lined by mesoderm Coelomate – body cavity completely surrounded by mesoderm Coelom = Cavity 3rd Hour Left off Here

14 Protostomes & Deuterostomes
Mouth forms from an embryonic blastopore Blastopore: an indention in the blastula Blastula: an early stage in the development of an embryo Sphere of cells enclosing a fluid filled cavity Ex: Platyhelminthes, Nematodes, Molluscs, Annelids, and Arthropods Anus forms from an embryonic blastospore Ex: Echinoderms, Hemichordates, Chordates

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