2Understanding the Microeconomy and the Role of Government Part TwoPart ThreeChapter 5Chapters 7-8Chapters 12-15Household BehaviorDemand in output marketsSupply in input marketsEquilibrium in Competitive Output MarketsShort runLong runChapter 11Market Imperfections and the Role of GovernmentImperfect market structuresExternalities, public goods, imperfect information, social choiceIncome distribution and povertyChapters 6-7Chapters 9-10The Competitive Market SystemGeneral equilibrium and efficiencyFirm BehaviorChoice of technologySupply in output marketsDemand in input marketsCompetitive Input MarketsLabor/landCapital
4Perfect CompetitionA key assumption in the study of household and firm behavior is that all input and output markets are perfectly competitive.Perfect competition is an industry structure in which there are many firms, each small relative to the industry, producing virtually identical (or homogeneous) products and in which no firm is large enough to have any control over price.
5Perfect KnowledgeWe also assume that households and firms possess all the information they need to make market choices.Perfect knowledge is the assumption that households posses a knowledge of the qualities and prices of everything available in the market, and that firms have all available information concerning wage rates, capital costs, and output prices.
6Household Choice in Output Markets Every household must make three basic decisions:How much of each product, or output, to demand.How much labor to supply.How much to spend today and how much to save for the future.
7Determinants of Household Demand (review) Factors that influence the quantity of a given good or service demanded by a single household include:The price of the product in question.The income available to the household.The household’s amount of accumulated wealth.The prices of related products available to the household.The household’s tastes and preferences.The household’s expectations about future income, wealth, and prices.
8The Budget ConstraintThe budget constraint refers to the limits imposed on household choices by income, wealth, and product prices.A choice set or opportunity set is the set of options that is defined by a budget constraint.Information of household income and wealth, together with information on product prices, makes it possible to distinguish those combinations of goods and services that are affordable from those that are not.
9The Budget ConstraintA budget constraint separates those combinations of goods and services that are available, given limited income, from those that are not. The available combinations make up the opportunity set.Information of household income and wealth, together with information on product prices, makes it possible to distinguish those combinations of goods and services that are affordable from those that are not.
10Choice Set or Opportunity Set Possible Budget Choices of a Person Earning $1,000 Per Month After TaxesMONTHLYOTHEROPTIONRENTFOODEXPENSESTOTALAVAILABLE?A$400$250$350$1,000YesB6002001,000C700150D1001,200NoThe real cost of a good or service is its opportunity cost, and opportunity cost is determined by relative prices.
11The Budget ConstraintWhen a consumer’s income is allocated entirely towards the purchase of only two goods, X and Y, the consumer’s income equals:where: I = consumer’s income X = quantity of good X purchased Y = quantity of good Y purchased PX = price of good X PY = price of good Y
12The Budget LineThe budget line shows the maximum quantity of two goods, X and Y, that can be purchased with a fixed amount of income, expressed as Y= f(X).We can derive the budget line by rearranging the terms in the income equation, as follows:Budget Line
13The Budget LineThe Y-intercept of the budget line shows the amount of good Y that can be purchased when all income is spent on good Y.The slope of the budget line equals the ratio of the goods’ prices.
14The Budget LineThis is the budget constraint when income equals $200 dollars per month, the price of a jazz club visit is $10 each, and the price of a Thai meal is $20.One of the possible combinations is 5 Thai meals and 10 Jazz club visits per month.
15The Budget LinePoint E is unattainable, and point D does not exhaust the entire income available.
16The Budget LineA decrease in the price of Thai meals shifts the budget line outward along the horizontal axis.The decrease in the price of one good expands the consumer’s opportunity set.
17The Basis of Choice: Utility Utility is the satisfaction, or reward, a product yields relative to its alternatives. The basis of choice.Marginal utility is the additional satisfaction gained by the consumption or use of one more unit of something.
18Diminishing Marginal Utility The law of diminishing marginal utility:The more of one good consumed in a given period, the less satisfaction (utility) generated by consuming each additional (marginal) unit of the same good.
19Diminishing Marginal Utility Total utility increases at a decreasing rate, while marginal utility decreases.
20The Utility-Maximizing Rule Utility-maximizing consumers spread out their expenditures until the following condition holds:where: MUX = marginal utility derived from the last unit of X consumed. MUY = marginal utility derived from the last unit of Y consumed. Y = quantity of Y purchased PX = price of good X PY = price of good Y
21Allocation of Fixed Expenditure Per Week Between Two Alternatives (1) TRIPS TO CLUB PER WEEK(2) TOTAL UTILITY(3) MARGINAL UTILITY (MU)(4) PRICE (P)(5) MARGINAL UTILITY PER DOLLAR (MU/P)112$3.004.0222103.332862.04321.35340.7(1) BASKETBALL GAMES PER WEEK(2) TOTAL UTILITY(3) (MU)(4) (P)(5) (MU/P)121$6.003.5233122.034291.544861.0551.5
22Diminishing Marginal Utility and Downward-Sloping Demand Diminishing marginal utility helps to explain why demand slopes down.Marginal utility falls with each additional unit consumed, so people are not willing to pay as much.
23Income and Substitution Effects Price changes affect households in two ways:The income effect: Consumption changes because purchasing power changes.The substitution effect: Consumption changes because opportunity costs change.
24The Income Effect of a Price Change When the price of a product falls, a consumer has more purchasing power with the same amount of income.When the price of a product rises, a consumer has less purchasing power with the same amount of income.
25The Substitution Effect of a Price Change When the price of a product falls, that product becomes more attractive relative to potential substitutes.When the price of a product rises, that product becomes less attractive relative to potential substitutes.
26Income and Substitution Effects of a Price Change Price of a good or serviceHousehold is better offIncome effectHousehold buys moreOpportunity cost of the good fallsSubstitution effectHousehold is worse offHousehold buys lessOpportunity cost of the good risesFALLSRISES
27Consumer SurplusConsumer surplus is the difference between the maximum amount a person is willing to pay for a good and its current market price.Consumer surplus measurement is a key element in cost-benefit analysis.
28The Diamond/Water Paradox The diamond/water paradox states that:the things with the greatest value in use frequently have little or no value in exchange, andthe things with the greatest value in exchange frequently have little or no value in use.
29Household Choice in Input Markets As in output markets, households face constrained choices in input markets. They must decide:Whether to workHow much to workWhat kind of a job to work atThese decisions are affected by:The availability of jobsMarket wage ratesThe skill possessed by the household
30The Price of LeisureThe wage rate can be thought of as the price—or the opportunity cost– of the benefits of either unpaid work or leisure.The decision to enter the workforce involves a trade-off between wages (and the goods and services that wages will buy) on the one hand, and leisure and the value of nonmarket production on the other.
31The Labor Supply CurveThe labor supply curve is a diagram that shows the quantity of labor supplied at different wage rates. Its shape depends on how households react to changes in the wage rate.
32Income and Substitution Effects of a Wage Change An increase in the wage rate affects households in two ways, known as the substitution and income effects.The substitution effect of a higher wage means that the opportunity cost of leisure is now higher. Given the law of demand, the household will buy less leisure.When the substitution effect outweighs the income effect, the labor supply curve slopes upward.
33Income and Substitution Effects of a Wage Change An increase in the wage rate affects households in two ways, known as the substitution and income effects.The income effect of a higher wage means that households can now afford to buy more leisure.When the income effect outweighs the substitution effect, the result is a “backward-bending” labor supply curve.
34Saving and Borrowing: Present Versus Future Consumption Households can use present income to finance future spending (i.e., save), or they can use future funds to finance present spending (i.e., borrow).
35Saving and Borrowing: Present Versus Future Consumption An increase in the interest rate also has substitution and income effects, as follows:Income effect: Households will now earn more on all previous savings, so they will save lessSubstitution effect: The opportunity cost of present consumption is now higher; given the law of demand, the household will save more.