Presentation on theme: "Research Methods Chapter 2. The Milgram Studies How would you have felt if you had been a teacher in the Milgram study? What would you have done? Would."— Presentation transcript:
Research Methods Chapter 2
The Milgram Studies How would you have felt if you had been a teacher in the Milgram study? What would you have done? Would you have delivered a shock, or would you have refused? Are you sure?
The Testing Method Reliability: a measure of consistency; must yield similar results on different testing occasions Validity: the degree to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure
Scientific Method Formulating a research question -Hypothesis:
Hypothesis Examples School children who watch more violent TV shows tend to behave more aggressively. Verbal expression of feelings of anger will decrease feelings of depression
Samples and Populations Example: Alf Landon defeated Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 poll (Roosevelt won by landslide) - surveyed voters by phone -during Great Depression Wealthy->phones>Republican
Samples Must accurately represent: Only representative samples allow us to ______________ from research samples to populations.
Sample/Population Sample: Population: Infer:
Problems in Generalizing Research sample (consider gender, age, ethnicity) Volunteer Bias
A source of ______ or _______ in research that reflects the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies ________ systematically from people who dont.
Volunteer Bias More willing to ___________ intimate information Volunteers have more spare _______ than nonvolunteers How do they differ from the population at large?
Question If scientists conducted research with a random sample of students from Valencia, would their sample represent the general U.S. population? Why or why not?
Survey/Naturalistic Observation Day 2
Research Methods Descriptive___________ Correlation____________ Experimentalexplains (__________)
Case Studies In depth observation of a small number of cases Obtained through interviews, questionaires, and psychological tests Freud-studied his patients in great depth Genie
Key Virtues Can exhibit __________________ and suggest hypotheses Can study phenomena you cannot manipulate Can generate hypotheses to be tested
Limitations Cant generalize nor replicate Observer bias could be present Cannot show causality Psychologists can guide patients into saying what they want hear
Example Case Study Phineus Gage Change in personality -began to use profanity -rude and irritable -drank excessively -could not keep a job
Phineas Gage Loss of sequencing ability: -would decide to do something -could not plan the steps -shift to something else Frontal lobe syndrome: Gage was not longer Gage
Survey Reveals _____________ and _________________ of large sample of people Learn about behavior and mental processes that _______________ be observed in the natural setting or studied experimentally
Limitations Limited generalization Replication sensitive to sample selected Give socially desirable answers Exaggerated answers to foul up results Different interviewers for different samples (gender, SES, ethnicity)
Limitations (cont.) Easy to bias by _______________ -Given the number of shootings in schools, should we regulate handguns? True or False -Cannot establish causal relationships
The Testing Method ______________: a measure of consistency; must yield similar results on different testing occasions ______________: the degree to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure
Naturalistic Observation In depth observation of a phenomena as it occurs in the world Examples: -Goodalls chimp studies -Piagets study of children
Key Virtues Unobtrusive measures Demonstrates phenomena in __________________________ Permits study of complex phenomena Can generate testable hypotheses
Limitations Generalization and replication cannot be assumed No control over ____________ ____________ Cannot establish causality
Correlational Method Day 3
Correlational Method Examines the extent to which two or more variables are related and can ___________ one another.
Correlational Method Virtues: -reveals relations of variables outside the lab -replication possible Limitations: ________________________________ relationships because you do not manipulate the variables
Correlation Coefficient A number that varies between ____________________________ Expresses the strength and direction (+/-) of the relationship between two variables Review page 58 (table 2.3)
Positve Correlation A relationship between variables in which __________________________ _____________________________ Example: Hours of study and GPA
Positive Correlation A positive relationship means: As (A) increases, so does (B) Hours of study (A) is positively correlated with GPA (B)
Negative Correlation A relationship between two variables in which ________________________ __________________________ Example: Hours of TV and GPA
Negative Correlation A negative relationship means: As (A) __________, (B) ____________ Number of hours of TV (A) has a negative relationship with GPA (B)
Correlation Research Correlational research may suggest but ____________________ cause and effect Often seems clear cut: Increase in Hours of study-> increase in GPA But could go other way: Students doing well in school are motivated to study more GPA-> Hours of study
Correlation Research Or some third factor: Achievement Motivation could cause both -> Hours of study -> GPA Test: length of marriage is correlated with male baldness. Does marriage cause baldness?
Experimental Method A scientific method that seeks to confirm _______ and ___________relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependent variables.
Experimental Method Treatment: in experiments, a condition ________________________ so that its effects may be observed.
Independent Variable A condition in a scientific study that is _____________ so that its effects may be observed.
Dependent Variable A measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable. The measured results, or ________________ in an experiment
Experimental Research Manipulate the Independent Variable (IV) Holding all other variables constant Observe the impact on the Dependent Variable (DV)
Experimental Research Example: Aggression & Alcohol (IV): Alcohol -administered at different levels, doses (DV):Aggressive behavior
Experimental Research ___________________ Participants: Partake of the treatment (example: members would ingest alcohol) _____________________: do not take the treatment (example: do not ingest alcohol) *** all other conditions are held constant (helps determine cause and effect)
Blinds and Double Blinds Expectations: -Aggression may not have resulted from alcohol because individuals may have expectations of the effects of alcohol. -People act in stereotypical ways when they believe they have been drinking alcohol. (people may become less anxious in social situations, more aggressive, or more sexually aroused)
Placebo ___________________ often results in the behavior that people expect. Physicians now and then give sugar pills to demanding, but healthy people. They often report they feel better.
Placebo Example: Tonic water & alcohol Giving participants placebo (tonic water) but they think they are drinking alcohol We can conclude that changes in behavior stem from their beliefs about alcohol, not the alcohol itself.
Blind Well-designed experiments control for the effects of expectations by creating conditions under which participants are ___________________________
Double-Blind Studies A study in which neither the participants nor the persons measuring results know who has received the treatment.
The Brain Day 4
The Brain The ___________, or consciousness, dwells essentially within the ____________.
Accidents Brain damage can impair consciousness and awareness Brain damage can result in loss of vision, hearing, confusion, and memory Sensitively located smaller portions can result in language problems, memory loss, or death
Electrical Stimulation Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) -______________ of the brain are associated with specific types of ____________ or _________________ -Ex: center of the brain (hypothalamus) linked to sexual and aggressive behavior
Lesions An injury that results in __________________ or __________________________ Specific knowledge: damage to different parts of limbic system can effect behavior (gentleness, rage, new memories)
Electroencephalograph EEG: An instrument that measures _____________________ of the brain Detects minute amounts of electrical activity (brain waves) that pass between the electrodes.
Electroencephalograph EEG: Brain waves associated with feelings of relaxation and various _____________________ Use EEG to diagnose abnormal behavior EEG helps locate ___________
The CAT scan Computerized axial tomography ________________ passed through the head Amount of radiation measured Three-dimensional view of the brain (detect brain damage, abnormalities) Option that replaces surgery
The PET scan Positron Emission Tomography Formation of a computer-generated image of the neural activity of parts of the brain by tracing the amount of ___________________used by the various parts.
The PET scan Harmless radioactive compound (tracer) is mixed with glucose and injected into bloodstream Glucose reaches the brain Patterns of brain activity are revealed (how active when listening to music, using languages, playing chess)
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Formation of a computer- generated image of the anatomy of the brain by measuring the signals emitted when the head is placed in a strong magnetic field.
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Relies on shifts in blood flow Fast MRI has sharper images than PET scan Pinpoint parts of the brain that are active when subjects engage in activities (viewing shapes, reporting first verb that comes to mind when researchers say a noun)
The Brain ___________________________________ Within the brain lies the potential for self-awareness and purposeful activity For every mental event such as a thought or feeling there are underlying biological events
Ethical Issues Were the Milgram studies ethical? Why or why not?
Research with People Ethics review committees: A group found in an institutional setting that helps researchers consider the potential harm of their methods and reviews proposed studies according to ethical guidelines.
Research with People __________________: The term used by psychologists to indicate that a person has agreed to participate in research after receiving information about the purpose of the study and the nature of the treatments.
Research with People ___________________: Secret, not to be disclosed Conflict-client threatens third party then psychologists obligated to warn the third party
Use of Deception May use when: _____________ outweigh the ________________ Individuals would have participated if they understood the benefits of the research Participants receive explanation afterward
The Use of Deception Arguments against deception: Can harm the research participant Ruin the reputation of a psychologist (less trustworthy)
Debriefed To elicit information about a just-completed procedure Helps to eliminate misconceptions and anxieties about the research Leave participants with their dignity intact
Research with Animals Still faced with ethical dilemma of harming animals Animals should be harmed only when there is no alternative and they believe that the benefits will justify the harm