2 Social PsychologyStudy the nature and causes of our behavior and mental processes in _______________Attitudes, social perception, attraction, social influence, and group behavior
3 Attitude ________________________________ Behavioral and cognitive tendencies that are expressed by evaluating particular people, places, or things, with ________________________________________Love and hateHelping behavior or mass destructionSocial conflict or conflict resolutionTend to remain ____________unless shoved (religion and political beliefs)
4 The A-B Problem A-Attitudes B-Behavior _________________________ ___________________________
5 The A-B Problem____________-better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes (church attendance vs. Christian)___________of attitudes-drinking and driving vs. MADD_________________- more likley to act on attitudes when vested interest in the outcome (dance elections or ASB)_____________-express attitudes when it is brought to mind or emotional impact
6 Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion: _______________ Route-involves thoughtful consideration of arguments and evidence (quality of a product)2) _______________ Route-associating objects with positive or negative cues (Virginia slims cigs)
7 Persuasive Messages Repetition-familiarity breeds content Two-sided claims-ads that admit the product’s weak points in addition to highlighting its strength are most believableFear appeal-arouses fear instead of rational analysis of the issues (smoking ads)Atmospheric elements-good, food, music, mood
8 Persuaded AudienceDo you have trouble saying no?________ self-esteem and ______social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure__________ self-esteem are _________open to persuasionQuiz-How assertive are you?
9 Foot-in-the-Door Technique A method for inducing compliance in which a _________request is followed by a _________ requestDonating money to charity can lead them to ask you to go door to door for their organization next time
10 PrejudiceThe belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial, ethnic, sexual, or other features, will possess negative characteristics or perform _________________Connected with avoidance, aggression, and discrimination
11 DiscriminationThe _____________________ to a person or group because of prejudiceTakes many forms including: denial of access to jobs, housing, voting booth, eye contact
12 Stereotypes Prejudices about groups that lead people to ____________ __________________________What are some stereotypes you have been exposed to?Pg.619 Table 16.1
13 Sources of Prejudice Assumptions of dissimilarity Social conflict Social learningInformation processingSocial categorizationVictimization by prejudiceJane Elliot’s A Class DividedWhy are the children so quick to discriminate?
15 Social PerceptionA subfield of social psychology that studies the ways in which ___________________________________________________ impressions are important and reasonably _____________
16 Primacy and Recency Effect Tendency to evaluate others in terms of _________ impressionsRecency:Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most __________ impressions
17 Attribution TheoryThe processes by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence one another’s behavior (__________________________________________)Dispositional attributionSituational attribution
18 Dispositional Attribution An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by __________________________________________________________________________________Ex: friend getting an A in Language Arts they’re good at it, they enjoy it etc…
19 Situational Attribution An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by ______________________________________________Ex: friend has an easier Language Arts teacher
20 Fundamental Attribution Error When we observe the behavior of others, we apparently focus too __________ on their ________ and too __________ on the _____________ that surround their actionsWe tend to infer traits from behaviorEx: woman screaming at husband in supermarket
21 Actor-Observer Effect The tendency to attribute our __________ behavior to _________________ factors but to attribute the behavior of ____________ to _______________ factors
22 Self-Serving BiasWe are likely to ascribe our __________ to __________, dispositional factors but our ___________ to ___________, situational influencesEx:Good grade on test= I studied really hard and I am smartBad grade on test= the questions were too difficult and unfair
24 Social InfluenceThe area of social psychology that studies the ways in which people influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of othersMilgram Studies-the tendency of many, if not most, people to obey an authority figure even when the figure’s demands contradict the person’s moral values
26 Conformity & Obedience Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform.Other behaviors may be an expression of __________________ (obedience) toward authority.OBJECTIVE 6| Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it.Conformity Obedience
28 Conformity Asch’s line experiments Factors: desire to be liked, low self-esteem, high self-consciousness, social shyness, group size, social supportLikelihood of conformity 5 members then 8 membersFinding one other person who supports your opinion is enough
29 Group Pressure & Conformity Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard.OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence.
30 Group Pressure & Conformity An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.William Vandivert/ Scientific American
31 Conditions that Strengthen Conformity One is made to feel ____________ or _________________.The group has at least ________ people.The group is __________________.One admires the group’s __________ and attractiveness.One has ____________________ or response.The ________________ one’s behavior.One’s ___________ strongly encourages respect for a social standard.
32 Reasons for Conformity Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to ________________________________________. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected.Informative Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are receptive of others’ opinions.
33 Informative Social Influence Baron and colleagues (1996) made students do an eyewitness identification task. If the task was easy (lineup exposure 5 sec.), conformity was low in comparison to a difficult (1/2 sec. exposure) task.
34 Informative Social Influence Baron et al., (1996)
35 Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center ObediencePeople comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command?Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience.Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University CenterOBJECTIVE 8| Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest.Stanley Milgram( )
38 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies In both Ash's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others.OBJECTIVE 9| Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence.In Milgram’s study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenter’s orders.
39 Group Behavior_________________________- the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group (group projects)Inhibits helping behavior in groups or crowds
40 Group Behavior______________- a process in which group members are influenced by _________________ and a _________________________ to ignore external realities as they make decisions.
41 Kitty Genovese 28-year old stabbed and murdered in New York Killer stalked her for more than half an hour and stabbed her in 3 separate attacks while she screamed38 neighbors heard the commotionTwice their voices and lights interrupted the assault, each time the attacker returnedNo one got involved or called the policeWhy?“I didn’t want to get involved.”“I was tired.”“I don’t know.”
42 Bystander EffectBystanders that are ______________ to help others in distressReasons:Not fully understand what they are seeing and fail to recognize that emergency existsNot certain they possess the competencies to take charge of situation and stay on sidelines for fear of looking like a foolBelieve others get what they deserveFear of getting hurting themselves
43 DeindividuationThe process by which group members may discontinue self-evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudesMobsCan act aggressively
44 AttractionA force that draws bodies, or people, together-an attitude of liking or (disliking)Positive attractionsNegative attractions
45 What is beautiful? Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder? British and Japanese-large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jawsToday’s society-tallness an asset for men, negative for womenBody weight and shape-____________ determined
46 AttractivenessMen-more swayed by _____________________, cooking ability, thriftWomen-_______________such as warmth, assertiveness, need for achievement, wit, fondness of children_______________________-good complexion, good hair, teeth, clear eyes, firm muscle tone, steady gait, cleanliness
47 Stereotyping the Pretty Attractive people _______ likely to develop psychological disordersCorrelates _____________ with popularity, social skills, sexual experienceMore likely judged __________ of crimes and given less severe sentencesChildren expected to be well-behaved, get good grades, talented, popular
48 Matching HypothesisPeople tend to choose persons __________________________________________________________________ in the formation of interpersonal relationshipsFear of rejectionOpposites attract? Most likely not…(examples?)_________________ important-religion, politics, food and music tastes, children, motivation
49 Triangular Model of Love Sternberg’s view that love involves combination of three components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment____________-couple’s closeness____________-romance and sexual feelings________________________-in love, maintaining relationships _____________________ Love
50 Triangular Model of Love Liking=Intimacy Alone(true friendships w/o passionor long-term commitment)Romantic Love=Intimacy+Passion(lovers physically andemotionally attracted butw/o commitment-summer romance)Companionate Love=Intimacy+Commitment(long-term committedfriendship or marriagew/o passion)Consummate Love=Intimacy+Passion+Commitment(complete love -an idealdifficult to attain)Infatuation=Passion Alone(passionate andobsessive love atfirst sight w/o intimacyor commitment)Empty Love=Decision/Commitment(decision to love eachother without intimacy orpassion.)Fatuous Love=Passion+Commitment(Shallow relationship suchas a whirlwind courtship.without time for intimacy todevelop.)
51 Body LanguageNonverbal behavior can express internal states, such as feelings and can regulate social interactionsEye contact-assertive and openTouching-women more than men (when appropriate)Posture-arms crossed, crossed legs