Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Social Psychology Attitudes.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Social Psychology Attitudes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Psychology Attitudes

2 Social Psychology Study the nature and causes of our behavior and mental processes in _______________ Attitudes, social perception, attraction, social influence, and group behavior

3 Attitude ________________________________
Behavioral and cognitive tendencies that are expressed by evaluating particular people, places, or things, with ________ ________________________________ Love and hate Helping behavior or mass destruction Social conflict or conflict resolution Tend to remain ____________ unless shoved (religion and political beliefs)

4 The A-B Problem A-Attitudes B-Behavior _________________________

5 The A-B Problem ____________-better predict specific behavior from specific attitudes (church attendance vs. Christian) ___________of attitudes-drinking and driving vs. MADD _________________- more likley to act on attitudes when vested interest in the outcome (dance elections or ASB) _____________-express attitudes when it is brought to mind or emotional impact

6 Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion:
_______________ Route-involves thoughtful consideration of arguments and evidence (quality of a product) 2) _______________ Route-associating objects with positive or negative cues (Virginia slims cigs)

7 Persuasive Messages Repetition-familiarity breeds content
Two-sided claims-ads that admit the product’s weak points in addition to highlighting its strength are most believable Fear appeal-arouses fear instead of rational analysis of the issues (smoking ads) Atmospheric elements-good, food, music, mood

8 Persuaded Audience Do you have trouble saying no? ________ self-esteem and ______social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure __________ self-esteem are _________open to persuasion Quiz-How assertive are you?

9 Foot-in-the-Door Technique
A method for inducing compliance in which a _________request is followed by a _________ request Donating money to charity can lead them to ask you to go door to door for their organization next time

10 Prejudice The belief that a person or group, on the basis of assumed racial, ethnic, sexual, or other features, will possess negative characteristics or perform _________________ Connected with avoidance, aggression, and discrimination

11 Discrimination The _____________________ to a person or group because of prejudice Takes many forms including: denial of access to jobs, housing, voting booth, eye contact

12 Stereotypes Prejudices about groups that lead people to ____________
__________________________ What are some stereotypes you have been exposed to? Pg.619 Table 16.1

13 Sources of Prejudice Assumptions of dissimilarity Social conflict
Social learning Information processing Social categorization Victimization by prejudice Jane Elliot’s A Class Divided Why are the children so quick to discriminate?

14 Social Perception

15 Social Perception A subfield of social psychology that studies the ways in which ____________ _____________________________ __________ impressions are important and reasonably _____________

16 Primacy and Recency Effect
Tendency to evaluate others in terms of _________ impressions Recency: Tendency to evaluate others in terms of the most __________ impressions

17 Attribution Theory The processes by which people draw conclusions about the factors that influence one another’s behavior (_______________ ___________________________) Dispositional attribution Situational attribution

18 Dispositional Attribution
An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by __________________________________________________________________________________ Ex: friend getting an A in Language Arts  they’re good at it, they enjoy it etc…

19 Situational Attribution
An assumption that a person’s behavior is determined by ________ ______________________________________ Ex: friend has an easier Language Arts teacher

20 Fundamental Attribution Error
When we observe the behavior of others, we apparently focus too __________ on their ________ and too __________ on the _____________ that surround their actions We tend to infer traits from behavior Ex: woman screaming at husband in supermarket

21 Actor-Observer Effect
The tendency to attribute our __________ behavior to _________________ factors but to attribute the behavior of ____________ to _______________ factors

22 Self-Serving Bias We are likely to ascribe our __________ to __________, dispositional factors but our ___________ to ___________, situational influences Ex: Good grade on test= I studied really hard and I am smart Bad grade on test= the questions were too difficult and unfair

23 Social Influence

24 Social Influence The area of social psychology that studies the ways in which people influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of others Milgram Studies-the tendency of many, if not most, people to obey an authority figure even when the figure’s demands contradict the person’s moral values

25 Social Influence The greatest contribution of social psychology is its study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence. NON SEQUITER © 2000 Wiley. Dist. by Universal Press Syndicate Reprinted with Permission

26 Conformity & Obedience
Behavior is contagious, modeled by one followed by another. We follow behavior of others to conform. Other behaviors may be an expression of __________________ (obedience) toward authority. OBJECTIVE 6| Describe the chameleon effect, and give an example of it. Conformity Obedience

27 The Chameleon Effect Conformity:

28 Conformity Asch’s line experiments
Factors: desire to be liked, low self-esteem, high self-consciousness, social shyness, group size, social support Likelihood of conformity 5 members then 8 members Finding one other person who supports your opinion is enough

29 Group Pressure & Conformity
Suggestibility is a subtle type of conformity, adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard. OBJECTIVE 7| Discuss Asch’s experiments on conformity, and distinguish between normative and informational social influence.

30 Group Pressure & Conformity
An influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality. William Vandivert/ Scientific American

31 Conditions that Strengthen Conformity
One is made to feel ____________ or _________________. The group has at least ________ people. The group is __________________. One admires the group’s __________ and attractiveness. One has ____________________ or response. The ________________ one’s behavior. One’s ___________ strongly encourages respect for a social standard.

32 Reasons for Conformity
Normative Social Influence: Influence resulting from a person’s desire to ________________________________________. A person may respect normative behavior because there may be a severe price to pay if not respected. Informative Social Influence: The group may provide valuable information. If we are unsure of what is right, and if being right matters, we are receptive of others’ opinions.

33 Informative Social Influence
Baron and colleagues (1996) made students do an eyewitness identification task. If the task was easy (lineup exposure 5 sec.), conformity was low in comparison to a difficult (1/2 sec. exposure) task.

34 Informative Social Influence
Baron et al., (1996)

35 Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center
Obedience People comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command? Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. Courtesy of CUNY Graduate School and University Center OBJECTIVE 8| Describe Milgram’s experiments on obedience, and outline the conditions in which obedience was highest. Stanley Milgram ( )

36 Milgram’s Study Both Photos: © 1965 By Stanley Miligram, from the
film Obedience, dist. by Penn State, Media Sales

37 Milgram’s Study: Results

38 Lessons from the Conformity and Obedience Studies
In both Ash's and Milgram's studies, participants were pressured to follow their standards and be responsive to others. OBJECTIVE 9| Explain how the conformity and obedience studies can help us understand our susceptibility to social influence. In Milgram’s study, participants were torn between hearing the victims pleas and the experimenter’s orders.

39 Group Behavior _________________________- the spreading or sharing of responsibility for a decision or behavior within a group (group projects) Inhibits helping behavior in groups or crowds

40 Group Behavior ______________- a process in which group members are influenced by _________________ and a ___________ ______________ to ignore external realities as they make decisions.

41 Kitty Genovese 28-year old stabbed and murdered in New York
Killer stalked her for more than half an hour and stabbed her in 3 separate attacks while she screamed 38 neighbors heard the commotion Twice their voices and lights interrupted the assault, each time the attacker returned No one got involved or called the police Why? “I didn’t want to get involved.” “I was tired.” “I don’t know.”

42 Bystander Effect Bystanders that are ______________ to help others in distress Reasons: Not fully understand what they are seeing and fail to recognize that emergency exists Not certain they possess the competencies to take charge of situation and stay on sidelines for fear of looking like a fool Believe others get what they deserve Fear of getting hurting themselves

43 Deindividuation The process by which group members may discontinue self-evaluation and adopt group norms and attitudes Mobs Can act aggressively

44 Attraction A force that draws bodies, or people, together-an attitude of liking or (disliking) Positive attractions Negative attractions

45 What is beautiful? Beauty is in the Eye of the Beholder?
British and Japanese-large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jaws Today’s society-tallness an asset for men, negative for women Body weight and shape-____________ determined

46 Attractiveness Men-more swayed by _____________________, cooking ability, thrift Women-_______________such as warmth, assertiveness, need for achievement, wit, fondness of children _______________________-good complexion, good hair, teeth, clear eyes, firm muscle tone, steady gait, cleanliness

47 Stereotyping the Pretty
Attractive people _______ likely to develop psychological disorders Correlates _____________ with popularity, social skills, sexual experience More likely judged __________ of crimes and given less severe sentences Children expected to be well-behaved, get good grades, talented, popular

48 Matching Hypothesis People tend to choose persons _________________________________ _________________________________ in the formation of interpersonal relationships Fear of rejection Opposites attract? Most likely not…(examples?) _________________ important-religion, politics, food and music tastes, children, motivation

49 Triangular Model of Love
Sternberg’s view that love involves combination of three components: intimacy, passion, and decision/commitment ____________-couple’s closeness ____________-romance and sexual feelings ________________________-in love, maintaining relationships  _____________________ Love

50 Triangular Model of Love
Liking=Intimacy Alone (true friendships w/o passion or long-term commitment) Romantic Love= Intimacy+Passion (lovers physically and emotionally attracted but w/o commitment- summer romance) Companionate Love= Intimacy+Commitment (long-term committed friendship or marriage w/o passion) Consummate Love= Intimacy+Passion+ Commitment (complete love -an ideal difficult to attain) Infatuation= Passion Alone (passionate and obsessive love at first sight w/o intimacy or commitment) Empty Love= Decision/Commitment (decision to love each other without intimacy or passion.) Fatuous Love= Passion+Commitment (Shallow relationship such as a whirlwind courtship. without time for intimacy to develop.)

51 Body Language Nonverbal behavior can express internal states, such as feelings and can regulate social interactions Eye contact-assertive and open Touching-women more than men (when appropriate) Posture-arms crossed, crossed legs

Download ppt "Social Psychology Attitudes."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google