Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Social Psychology Lectures 20, 21, & 22"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 14: Social Psychology Lectures 20, 21, & 22
2 Learning OutcomesDefine social psychology.Explain why people obey authority figures and conform to social norms.Define attitude and discuss factors that shape it.
3 Learning OutcomesDefine social perception and describe the factors that contribute to it.Describe how and why people behave differently as group members than as individuals.
4 People act in accord with their consciences. Truth or Fiction?People act in accord with their consciences.We appreciate things more when we have to work for them.Truth or Fiction? People act in accord with their consciences. FalseTruth or Fiction? We appreciate things more when we have to work for them. True.
5 Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Opposites attract. Truth or Fiction?Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.Opposites attract.Truth or Fiction? Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. False.Truth or Fiction? Opposites attract. False.
6 Truth or Fiction?We tend to hold others responsible for their misdeeds but to see ourselves as victims of circumstances when we misbehave.Most people will torture an innocent person if they are ordered to do so.Truth or Fiction? We tend to hold others responsible for their misdeed but to see ourselves as victims of circumstances when we misbehave. True.Truth or Fiction? Most people will torture an innocent person if they are ordered to do so. True.
7 Truth or Fiction? Seeing is believing. Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death.Truth or Fiction? Seeing is believing. False.Truth and Fiction? Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death. True
8 1. What is Social Psychology? Study of the nature and causes of people’s thoughts and behavior in social situations
9 2. Social Influence Obedience to Authority Milgram Studies (60s)Majority complied to demands of authority even when that required they ‘inflict’ a harmful shock on innocent people
10 Figure The Experimental Setup in the Milgram Studies (VIDEO) When the “learner” makes an error, the experimenter prods the “teacher: to deliver a painful electric shock.
11 4. Factors Contributing to Obedience to Authority SocializationLack of social comparisonPerception of legitimacy of authority figuresFoot-in-the-door technique (other techniques)door-in the-face technique; low-ball techniqueInaccessibility of valuesBuffers between perpetrator and victimFoot- in –the door technique- compliance to a larger request is gained by preceding it with a very small request
12 5. ConformityConform – when we change our behavior to adhere to social normsSocial norms – widely accepted expectations concerning social behaviorsConformity- A change in behavior, belief, or both to conform to a group norm as a result of real or imagined group pressure
13 6. ConformityAsch Study (1955)Most people will conform, even when they are wrong
15 8. Factors Contributing to Conformity Collectivist cultureDesire to be liked by group membersLow self-esteemSocial shynessLack of familiarity with taskGroup sizeSocial support
16 9. How Groups Influence Us? Social Facilitation Presence of others facilitates performance AKA social facilitation (audience)Increased arousal or motivationEvaluation apprehensionPresence of others impairs performance (part or a group)Social loafingDiffusion of responsibility
17 10. The Bystander Effect and the Kitty Genovese Case. The probability of a person’s helping in an emergency is greater when there are no other bystanders than when there are other bystandersNeed to decide if this is an emergencyDecide if personally responsible or notDecide how to helpStudents share their experiences Re their adjustment to college.(Darley & Latane, 1968).Truth and Fiction? Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death. True. It is true, as evidenced by the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City more than 40 years ago.Strength in Numbers? Maybe not. (See text for a discussion on the impact of increasing numbers on helping behavior.
18 11. Altruism and the Bystander Effect Altruism-selfless concern for the welfare of othersFactors that influence decision to helpGood moodEmpathicBelieve an emergency existsAssume responsibility to actKnow what to doKnow the people who need helpSimilarity to people who need helpTruth and Fiction? Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death. True. It is true, as evidenced by the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York City more than 40 years ago.Strength in Numbers? Maybe not. (See text for a discussion on the impact of increasing numbers on helping behavior.
19 12. Mob Behavior and Deindividuation Highly emotional crowds may induce “mob behavior”DeindividuationThe loss of self-awareness and self restraint in a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymitylower concern of social evaluation
20 13. Polarization and the “Risky Shift” Polarization – taking an extreme positionOr strengthening of the group prevailing opinion about a topic following group discussionRisky shift
21 14. Groupthink originated by Irving Janis 1982 Unrealistic group decision making in which external realities are ignoredInfluenced byCohesiveness of groupDynamic group leaderExternal threat
22 15. Contributors to Groupthink Feelings of invulnerabilityGroup’s belief in its rightnessDiscrediting of information contrary to decisionPressure for group conformityStereotyping of members of out-group
24 17. AttitudeA relatively stable evaluation of a person, object, situation, or issue, along a continuum ranging from positive to negative, including behavioral tendencies that follow.Attitudes are largely learned, and they affect behavior.
25 18. Components of an Attitude Attitude toward Exercise Cognitive component (thoughts and believes about attitudinal object)“Exercise is good for your health,” it’s good stress reliever,” “it improves my appearance”Emotional Component (Feelings toward attitudinal object)“Exercise make me feel great”Behavioral Component (Predisposition to act toward attitudinal object)“I exercise every day,” “I read articles about exercise”“I buy exercise equipment”
26 19. Is Our Behavior Consistent w/Our Attitude? Factors that affect the link between Attitudes (A) and Behavior (B)SpecificityStrength of attitudesVested interestAccessibilityTruth or Fiction? People act in accord with their consciences. False. The links between attitudes (A) and behaviors (B) tend to be weak to moderate.
27 20. Attitude FormationLearned attitudesConditioning or learning by observationCognitive AppraisalForm opinion after appraisal and evaluation of situation
28 21. Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion Elaboration likelihood model- describes the way in which people respond to persuasive messageCentral route of persuasionInspires thoughtful consideration of evidence and argumentsPeripheral route of persuasionAssociate with positive or negative cues
29 22. The Persuasive Message Repeated exposure to things and people enhances their appeal“Fear” appeal is more persuasive than facts
30 23. The Persuasive Communicator Characterized by:Expertise;TrustworthinessAttractivenessSimilarity to their audienceSelective avoidance and selective exposure
31 24. The Context of the Message AlcoholComplementsAspects of immediate environment (music)Agreement and praise.
32 25. The Persuaded Audience High self-esteemLow social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure.“I was worried about what the other person think of me if I refuse”“It is better to help others than to be self-centered.”“The other person might be hurt or insulted if I refuse.”“It does not matter what the other person thinks of me.”“I am perfectly free to say no.”“This request is unreasonable.”
33 26. Cognitive Dissonance Theory When attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals are motivated to reduce that inconsistencyFestinger & Carlsmith (1959)Attitude-discrepant behaviorPeople paid less rated the task more interestingEffort justificationTruth or Fiction? We appreciate things more when we have to work for them. True. An example of effort justification, we do tend to appreciate things more when we have to work for them.
34 27.Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice - attitudeCognitive level – expectation that members of target group will behave poorlyBehavioral – avoidance, aggression and discriminationStereotypes – fixed conventional attitudesMay be positive or negative
35 28. Prejudice and Discrimination Sources of PrejudiceDissimilaritySocial conflictSocial learningInformation processingSocial categorization
36 Interpersonal Attraction Selection of a PartnerRomantic Love
37 29. Interpersonal Attraction Factors contributing to attractionPhysical appearance, similarity, and reciprocityPhysical appearanceStandards for beauty are cross-culturalLarge eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jawsTruth or Fiction? Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. False. Although there may be individual preferences, it does not seem that standards for beauty are so flexible that they are fully “in the eye of the beholder.” Many standards for beauty appear to be cross-cultural.
38 30.Interpersonal Attraction Attraction-Similarity HypothesisOur partners tend to be like usSimilarity in AttitudesWe are attracted to people who share our attitudesFactors that influence our preferencesPropinquityTruth or Fiction? Opposites attract. False. Despite the familiar saying “Opposites attract,” it seems that people who are similar are more likely than opposites to be attracted to one another
39 31. Selecting a PartnerGender differences in preferencesMales – physical appearanceFemales – professional status
40 31. LoveTriangular model of loveIntimacyPassionCommitmentRomantic love combines intimacy and passionConsummate love combines all three
42 First ImpressionsFirst impressions matter a great dealWe infer traits from behaviorPrimacy effectRecency effect
43 Attribution TheoryProcess by which one draws conclusions about the influences on another’s behaviorDispositional attributionsInternal factorsSituational attributionsExternal factors
44 Actor – observer effect Fundamental attribution error Attribution TheoryActor – observer effectFundamental attribution errorAttribute too much of other’s behavior on dispositionalCultural bias – individualistic culturesSelf-serving biasTruth or Fiction? We tend to hold others responsible for their misdeed but to see ourselves as victims of circumstances when we misbehave. True as evidenced by the fundamental attribution error.Actor – observer effect - Behavior of others – dispositional; Behavior of self - situationalSelf-serving bias - Successes attributed to internal factors; Failures attributed to external factors
45 Body LanguageCommunication through posture and gesturesTouchingGazing and StaringGazing and holding hands game
46 Slides to help expand the lectures Beyond the BookSlides to help expand the lectures
47 Factors Contributing to the Attribution Process Dispositional factorsLow consensusHigh consistencyLow distinctivenessSituational factorsHigh consensusLow consistencyHigh distinctiveness
48 Video Connections: Stereotype Threat Agree or disagree: The solution to stereotype threat lies in society and not in the individualLearning Objectives of Video Connections: Stereotype Threat.To understand some of the stereotypes that exist in our society, and how they affect people’s behavior.To understand the theory of stereotype threat and how it is applied.Explain how Claude Steele induced and reduced stereotype threat in his experiment.