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Chapter 14: Social Psychology Lectures 20, 21, & 22.

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1 Chapter 14: Social Psychology Lectures 20, 21, & 22

2 Learning Outcomes Define social psychology. Explain why people obey authority figures and conform to social norms. Define attitude and discuss factors that shape it.

3 Learning Outcomes Define social perception and describe the factors that contribute to it. Describe how and why people behave differently as group members than as individuals.

4 Truth or Fiction?  People act in accord with their consciences.  We appreciate things more when we have to work for them.

5 Truth or Fiction?  Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.  Opposites attract.

6 Truth or Fiction?  We tend to hold others responsible for their misdeeds but to see ourselves as victims of circumstances when we misbehave.  Most people will torture an innocent person if they are ordered to do so.

7 Truth or Fiction?  Seeing is believing.  Nearly 40 people stood by and did nothing while a woman was being stabbed to death.

8 1. What is Social Psychology? Study of the nature and causes of people’s thoughts and behavior in social situations

9 2. Social Influence Obedience to Authority Milgram Studies (60s) –Majority complied to demands of authority even when that required they ‘inflict’ a harmful shock on innocent people

10 Figure 14.5 The Experimental Setup in the Milgram Studies (VIDEO) When the “learner” makes an error, the experimenter prods the “teacher: to deliver a painful electric shock.

11 4. Factors Contributing to Obedience to Authority Socialization Lack of social comparison Perception of legitimacy of authority figures Foot-in-the-door technique (other techniques) door-in the-face technique; low-ball technique Inaccessibility of values Buffers between perpetrator and victim

12 5. Conformity Conform – when we change our behavior to adhere to social norms Social norms – widely accepted expectations concerning social behaviors Conformity- A change in behavior, belief, or both to conform to a group norm as a result of real or imagined group pressure

13 6. Conformity Asch Study (1955) –Most people will conform, even when they are wrong

14 7.

15 8. Factors Contributing to Conformity Collectivist culture Desire to be liked by group members Low self-esteem Social shyness Lack of familiarity with task Group size Social support

16 9. How Groups Influence Us? Social Facilitation Presence of others facilitates performance AKA social facilitation (audience) –Increased arousal or motivation –Evaluation apprehension Presence of others impairs performance (part or a group) –Social loafing –Diffusion of responsibility

17 10. The Bystander Effect and the Kitty Genovese Case. The probability of a person’s helping in an emergency is greater when there are no other bystanders than when there are other bystanders –Need to decide if this is an emergency –Decide if personally responsible or not –Decide how to help Students share their experiences Re their adjustment to college.(Darley & Latane, 1968).

18 11. Altruism and the Bystander Effect Altruism-selfless concern for the welfare of others Factors that influence decision to help –Good mood –Empathic –Believe an emergency exists –Assume responsibility to act –Know what to do –Know the people who need help –Similarity to people who need help

19 12. Mob Behavior and Deindividuation Highly emotional crowds may induce “mob behavior” Deindividuation –The loss of self-awareness and self restraint in a group situation that fosters arousal and anonymity –lower concern of social evaluation

20 13. Polarization and the “Risky Shift” Polarization – taking an extreme position –Or strengthening of the group prevailing opinion about a topic following group discussion –Risky shift

21 14. Groupthink originated by Irving Janis 1982 Unrealistic group decision making in which external realities are ignored Influenced by –Cohesiveness of group –Dynamic group leader –External threat

22 15. Contributors to Groupthink Feelings of invulnerability Group’s belief in its rightness Discrediting of information contrary to decision Pressure for group conformity Stereotyping of members of out-group

23 16.Group Decision Making Social decision schemes –Majority-wins –Truth-wins –Two-thirds majority –First-shift rule

24 17. Attitude A relatively stable evaluation of a person, object, situation, or issue, along a continuum ranging from positive to negative, including behavioral tendencies that follow. Attitudes are largely learned, and they affect behavior.

25 18. Components of an Attitude Attitude toward Exercise Cognitive component (thoughts and believes about attitudinal object) –“Exercise is good for your health,” it’s good stress reliever,” “it improves my appearance” Emotional Component (Feelings toward attitudinal object) –“Exercise make me feel great” Behavioral Component (Predisposition to act toward attitudinal object) –“I exercise every day,” “I read articles about exercise” “I buy exercise equipment”

26 19. Is Our Behavior Consistent w/Our Attitude? Factors that affect the link between Attitudes (A) and Behavior (B) –Specificity –Strength of attitudes –Vested interest –Accessibility

27 20. Attitude Formation Learned attitudes –Conditioning or learning by observation Cognitive Appraisal –Form opinion after appraisal and evaluation of situation

28 21. Changing Attitudes Through Persuasion Elaboration likelihood model- describes the way in which people respond to persuasive message –Central route of persuasion Inspires thoughtful consideration of evidence and arguments –Peripheral route of persuasion Associate with positive or negative cues

29 22. The Persuasive Message Repeated exposure to things and people enhances their appeal “Fear” appeal is more persuasive than facts

30 23. The Persuasive Communicator Characterized by: –Expertise; –Trustworthiness –Attractiveness –Similarity to their audience Selective avoidance and selective exposure

31 24. The Context of the Message Alcohol Complements Aspects of immediate environment (music) Agreement and praise.

32 25. The Persuaded Audience High self-esteem Low social anxiety are more likely to resist social pressure. “I was worried about what the other person think of me if I refuse” “It is better to help others than to be self-centered.” “The other person might be hurt or insulted if I refuse.” “It does not matter what the other person thinks of me.” “I am perfectly free to say no.” “This request is unreasonable.”

33 26. Cognitive Dissonance Theory When attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, individuals are motivated to reduce that inconsistency Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) –Attitude-discrepant behavior People paid less rated the task more interesting –Effort justification

34 27.Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice - attitude –Cognitive level – expectation that members of target group will behave poorly –Behavioral – avoidance, aggression and discrimination Stereotypes – fixed conventional attitudes –May be positive or negative

35 28. Prejudice and Discrimination Sources of Prejudice –Dissimilarity –Social conflict –Social learning –Information processing –Social categorization

36 Selection of a Partner Romantic Love Interpersonal Attraction

37 29. Interpersonal Attraction Factors contributing to attraction Physical appearance, similarity, and reciprocity –Physical appearance Standards for beauty are cross-cultural Large eyes, high cheekbones, narrow jaws

38 30.Interpersonal Attraction Attraction-Similarity Hypothesis –Our partners tend to be like us Similarity in Attitudes –We are attracted to people who share our attitudes Factors that influence our preferences –Propinquity

39 31. Selecting a Partner –Gender differences in preferences Males – physical appearance Females – professional status

40 31. Love Triangular model of love –Intimacy –Passion –Commitment Romantic love combines intimacy and passion Consummate love combines all three

41 Social Perception

42 First Impressions First impressions matter a great deal –We infer traits from behavior Primacy effect Recency effect

43 Attribution Theory Process by which one draws conclusions about the influences on another’s behavior Dispositional attributions –Internal factors Situational attributions –External factors

44 Attribution Theory Actor – observer effect Fundamental attribution error –Attribute too much of other’s behavior on dispositional –Cultural bias – individualistic cultures Self-serving bias

45 Body Language Communication through posture and gestures –Touching –Gazing and Staring –Gazing and holding hands game

46 Beyond the Book Slides to help expand the lectures

47 Factors Contributing to the Attribution Process Dispositional factors –Low consensus –High consistency –Low distinctiveness Situational factors –High consensus –Low consistency –High distinctiveness

48 Video Connections: Stereotype Threat Agree or disagree: The solution to stereotype threat lies in society and not in the individual

49 PLAY VIDEO Stereotype Threat

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