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Patterns of Heredity the BIG idea In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living things inherit traits.

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Presentation on theme: "Patterns of Heredity the BIG idea In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living things inherit traits."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patterns of Heredity the BIG idea In sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to offspring in predictable patterns. Living things inherit traits in patterns. 4.1 Patterns of heredity can be predicted. 4.2 Meiosis is a special form of cell division. 4.3

2 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Living things inherit traits in patterns. A type of reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells combine to form offspring with genetic material from both cells. sexual reproduction gene sexual reproduction heredity dominant recessive The basic unit of heredity that consists of a segment of DNA on a chromosome. gene The passing of genes from parents to offspring; the genes are expressed in the traits of the offspring. heredity

3 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Living things inherit traits in patterns. gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive A term that describes the allele that determines the phenotype of an individual organism when two different copies are present in the genotype. dominant A term that describes an allele that is not expressed when combined with a dominant form of the gene. recessive

4 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Patterns of heredity can be predicted. 4.2 ratio Punnett square Punnett squares show possible outcomes of heredity. Ratios and percentages can be used with Punnett squares to express the probability of particular outcomes. percentage probability B b B b BB Bb bb B = black fur b = brown fur

5 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME 4.3 Meiosis is a special form of cell division. egg gamete sperm At the beginning of meiosis I, the parent cell has two copies of each chromosome pair. During meiosis I, the homologs of the chromosome pair separate; there are two cells, each with two copies of one homolog from each pair. During meiosis II, the two copies of each homolog separate; each daughter cell has one homolog. fertilization meiosis Meiosis II 1n1n 1n1n 1n1n 1n1n Meiosis I

6 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME A sperm or egg cell, containing half the usual number of chromosomes of an organism (one chromosome from each pair), which is found only in the reproductive organs of a plant or animal. gamete A female reproductive cell (gamete) that forms in the reproductive organs of a female and has just a single copy of the genetic material of the parent. egg A male reproductive cell (gamete) that forms in the reproductive organs of a male and has just a single copy of the genetic material of the parent. sperm

7 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME Part of the process of sexual reproduction in which a male reproductive cell and a female reproductive cell combine to make a new cell that can develop into a new organism. fertilization A part of sexual reproduction in which cells divide to form sperm cells in a male and egg cells in a female. Meiosis occurs only in reproductive cells. meiosis

8 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME I. Living things inherit traits in patterns. A. Parents and offspring are similar. B. Genes are on chromosome pairs. 4.1 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Living things inherit traits in patterns. 1. One Example C. Gregor Mendel made some important discoveries about heredity. 2. Mendel’s Conclusions gene sexual reproduction heredity allele phenotype genotype dominant recessive 1. Phenotype and Genotype D. Alleles interact to produce traits. 2. Dominant and Recessive Alleles CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

9 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME II. Patterns of heredity can be predicted. B. Ratios and percentages can express the probability of outcomes. 4.2 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY A. Punnett squares show possible outcomes for inheritance. Patterns of heredity can be predicted. ratio Punnett square percentage probability CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

10 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME III. Meiosis is a special form of cell division. A. Meiosis is necessary for sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis I B. Cells divide twice during meiosis. 4.3 KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY KEY CONCEPT SUMMARY Meiosis is a special form of cell division. 2. Meiosis II egg gamete sperm fertilization meiosis C. Meiosis and mitosis differ in some important ways. CHAPTER RESOURCES CHAPTER RESOURCES

11 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME XX X Y XX XY

12 VOCABULARY KEY CONCEPT CHAPTER HOME


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