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16 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Using JDBC to Access the Database.

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Presentation on theme: "16 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Using JDBC to Access the Database."— Presentation transcript:

1 16 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Using JDBC to Access the Database

2 16-2 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Objectives After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe how Java applications connect to the database Describe how Java database functionality is supported by the Oracle database Load and register a JDBC driver Connect to an Oracle database Follow the steps to execute a simple SELECT statement Map simple Oracle database types to Java types

3 16-3 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Java, J2EE, and Oracle 10g Oracle database Web server Client Application server Presentation Business logic Data Oracle Application Server 10g J2EE Certified Environment JDBC

4 16-4 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Client application or applet Connecting to a Database with Java Client applications, JSPs, and servlets use JDBC. JDBCRelational DB

5 16-5 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. JDBC is a standard interface for connecting to relational databases from Java. –The JDBC API includes Core API Package in java.sql. –JDBC 2.0 API includes Optional Package API in javax.sql. –JDBC 3.0 API includes the Core API and Optional Package API Include the Oracle JDBC driver archive file in the CLASSPATH. The JDBC class library is part of the Java 2, Standard Edition (J2SE). What Is JDBC?

6 16-6 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. // Standard packages import java.sql.*; import java.math.*; // optional // Oracle extension to JDBC packages import oracle.jdbc.*; import oracle.sql.*; Preparing the Environment Set the CLASSPATH : Import JDBC packages: [Oracle Home]\jdbc\lib\classes12.jar

7 16-7 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Notes Page

8 16-8 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Steps for Using JDBC to Execute SQL Statements 1. Register JDBC driver. 4. Execute SQL statement. 4a. Process SELECT statement. 4b. Process DML or DDL statement. 6. Close connections.5. Process query results. 3. Create statement object. 2. Obtain a connection.

9 16-9 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 1: Registering the Driver Register the driver in the code: – DriverManager.registerDriver (new oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver()); – Class.forName ("oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver"); Register the driver when launching the class: – java –D jdbc.drivers = oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver ;

10 16-10 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Using the package oracle.jdbc.driver, Oracle provides different drivers to establish a connection to the database. JDBC calls Database commands Database Connecting to the Database OracleDriver Thin client OCI Server-based …

11 16-11 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Client Oracle JDBC Drivers: Thin Client Driver Is written entirely in Java Must be used by applets Server Oracle Applet JDBC Thin driver

12 16-12 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Application JDBC OCI driver Oracle JDBC Drivers: OCI Client Drivers Is written in C and Java Must be installed on the client ClientServer Oracle ocixxx.dll

13 16-13 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Choosing the Right Driver Applet Client application EJB, servlet (on the middle tier) Stored procedure OCIThin Driver Thin Server side OCI Thin Type of Program

14 16-14 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 2: Getting a Database Connection In JDBC 1.0, use the DriverManager class, which provides overloaded getConnection() methods. –All connection methods require a JDBC URL to specify the connection details. Example: Vendors can provide different types of JDBC drivers. Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection( "scott","tiger");

15 16-15 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. About JDBC URLs JDBC uses a URL-like string. The URL identifies –The JDBC driver to use for the connection –Database connection details, which vary depending on the driver used Example using Oracle Thin JDBC driver: – jdbc: : jdbc:oracle: ProtocolDatabase identification

16 16-16 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. JDBC URLs with Oracle Drivers Oracle Thin driver Oracle OCI driver Syntax: : : Example: Syntax: Example:

17 16-17 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 3: Creating a Statement JDBC statement objects are created from the Connection instance: Use the createStatement() method, which provides a context for executing an SQL statement. Example: Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection( "scott","tiger"); Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();

18 16-18 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Using the Statement Interface The Statement interface provides three methods to execute SQL statements: Use executeQuery(String sql) for SELECT statements. –Returns a ResultSet object for processing rows Use executeUpdate(String sql) for DML or DDL. –Returns an int Use execute(String) for any SQL statement. –Returns a boolean value

19 16-19 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 4a: Executing a Query Provide a SQL query string, without semicolon, as an argument to the executeQuery() method. Returns a ResultSet object: Statement stmt = null; ResultSet rset = null; stmt = conn.createStatement(); rset = stmt.executeQuery ("SELECT ename FROM emp");

20 16-20 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. The ResultSet Object The JDBC driver returns the results of a query in a ResultSet object. ResultSet : –Maintains a cursor pointing to its current row of data –Provides methods to retrieve column values

21 16-21 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 4b: Submitting DML Statements 1. Create an empty statement object: 2. Use executeUpdate to execute the statement: Example: Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(); int count = stmt.executeUpdate(SQLDMLstatement); Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(); int rowcount = stmt.executeUpdate ("DELETE FROM order_items WHERE order_id = 2354");

22 16-22 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. 1. Create an empty statement object: 2. Use executeUpdate to execute the statement: Example: Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(); int rowcount = stmt.executeUpdate ("CREATE TABLE temp (col1 NUMBER(5,2), col2 VARCHAR2(30)"); Step 4b: Submitting DDL Statements Statement stmt = conn.createStatement(); int count = stmt.executeUpdate(SQLDDLstatement);

23 16-23 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 5: Processing the Query Results The executeQuery() method returns a ResultSet. Use the next() method in loop to iterate through rows. Use getXXX() methods to obtain column values by column position in query, or column name. stmt = conn.createStatement(); rset = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT ename FROM emp"); while (rset.next()) { System.out.println (rset.getString("ename")); }

24 16-24 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Step 6: Closing Connections Explicitly close a Connection, Statement, and ResultSet object to release resources that are no longer needed. Call their respective close() methods: Connection conn =...; Statement stmt =...; ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT ename FROM emp");... // clean up rset.close(); stmt.close(); conn.close();...

25 16-25 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. A Basic Query Example import java.sql.*; class TestJdbc { public static void main (String args [ ]) throws SQLException { DriverManager.registerDriver (new oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver()); Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection "tiger"); Statement stmt = conn.createStatement (); ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery ("SELECT ename FROM emp"); while (rset.next ()) System.out.println (rset.getString ("ename")); rset.close(); stmt.close(); conn.close(); } }

26 16-26 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. ResultSet rset = stmt.executeQuery ("SELECT empno, hiredate, job FROM emp"); while (rset.next()){ int id = rset.getInt(1); Date hiredate = rset.getDate(2); String job = rset.getString(3); Mapping Database Types to Java Types ResultSet maps database types to Java types: Column Name empno hiredate job Type NUMBER DATE VARCHAR2 Method getInt() getDate() getString()

27 16-27 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Notes Page

28 16-28 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. 1.Create an empty statement object: 2.Use execute to execute the statement: 3.Process the statement accordingly: boolean isQuery = stmt.execute(SQLstatement); if (isQuery) { // was a query - process results ResultSet r = stmt.getResultSet();... } else { // was an update or DDL - process result int count = stmt.getUpdateCount();... } Handling an Unknown SQL Statement Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();

29 16-29 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. SQL statements can throw a java.sql.SQLException. Use standard Java error handling methods. Handling Exceptions try { rset = stmt.executeQuery("SELECT empno, ename FROM emp"); } catch (java.sql.SQLException e) {... /* handle SQL errors */ }... finally { // clean up try { if (rset != null) rset.close(); } catch (Exception e) {... /* handle closing errors */ }...

30 16-30 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Managing Transactions By default, connections are in autocommit mode. Use conn.setAutoCommit(false) to turn autocommit off. To control transactions when you are not in autocommit mode, use: – conn.commit() : Commit a transaction – conn.rollback() : Roll back a transaction Closing a connection commits the transaction even with the autocommit off option.

31 16-31 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. The PreparedStatement Object A PreparedStatement prevents reparsing of SQL statements. Use this object for statements that you want to execute more than once. A PreparedStatement can contain variables that you supply each time you execute the statement.

32 16-32 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. PreparedStatement pstmt = conn.prepareStatement ("UPDATE emp SET ename = ? WHERE empno = ?"); PreparedStatement pstmt = conn.prepareStatement ("SELECT ename FROM emp WHERE empno = ?"); How to Create a PreparedStatement 1.Register the driver and create the database connection. 2.Create the PreparedStatement, identifying variables with a question mark (?):

33 16-33 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. 1.Supply values for the variables: 2.Execute the statement: pstmt.setXXX(index, value); pstmt.executeQuery(); pstmt.executeUpdate(); int empNo = 3521; PreparedStatement pstmt = conn.prepareStatement("UPDATE emp SET ename = ? WHERE empno = ? "); pstmt.setString(1, "DURAND"); pstmt.setInt(2, empNo); pstmt.executeUpdate(); How to Execute a PreparedStatement

34 16-34 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Maximize Database Access Use connection pooling to minimize the operation costs of creating and closing sessions. Use explicit data source declaration for physical reference to the database. Use the getConnection() method to obtain a logical connection instance.

35 16-35 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Database Database commands Data source ConnectionPoolDataSource Java servlet Middle-tier server code Middle tier Connection Pooling JDBC driver

36 16-36 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Notes Page

37 16-37 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Notes Page

38 16-38 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Summary In this lesson, you should have learned the following: JDBC provides database connectivity for various Java constructs, including servlets and client applications. JDBC is a standard Java interface and part of the J2SE. The steps for using SQL statements in Java are Register, Connect, Submit, and Close. SQL statements can throw exceptions. You can control default transactions behavior.

39 16-39 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Practice 16: Overview This practice covers: Setting up the Java environment for JDBC Adding JDBC components to query the database Populating the OrderEntryFrame with Customers from the database

40 16-40 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Notes Page for Practice 16

41 16-41 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Practice 16: Notes

42 16-42 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Practice 16: Notes


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