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Presentation on theme: "TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION"— Presentation transcript:


2 4 BASIC TISSUE TYPES Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous

3 Tight Junctions Adherens Desmosomes Hemidesmosomes Gap Junctions
Cell Connections Tight Junctions Adherens Desmosomes Hemidesmosomes Gap Junctions

4 Tight Junctions most apical part of cell
fuse 2 adjacent membranes with fibrous connections prevents passage of molecules & ions between cells if epithelium forms tube  space in tube is-lumen presence of tight junctions ensures that contents of lumen are isolated from basolateral cell surfaces

5 Adherens dense layers of proteins on inside of membrane
attach membrane proteins to microfilaments of cell’s cytoskeleton

6 Desmosomes localized patches holding cells together
allow tissues to resist twisting & stretching stabilize cell shapes most abundant in superficial skin layers links so strong that dead skin cells are shed in thick sheets-not individually

7 Hemidesmosomes made of proteins anchor cells to basement membrane

8 Gap Junctions intercellular channels
permit passage of ions & small molecules comprised of pore-like transmembrane proteins-connexons help coordinate functions such as cilia beating most abundant in cardiac & smooth muscle coordinate muscle cell contraction

9 Epithelial Tissue flat sheets of contiguous cells
line body surfaces & cavities cover every exposed surface skin & all passageways that communicate with the outside world Digestive Reproductive Urinary Respiratory

Cellularity made almost entirely of cells packed together tightly with little extracellular space Polarity cytoplasmic components of cells not evenly distributed cells have one exposed face either to external world or to a lumen- apical surface and basal surface which faces underlying connective tissue Attachment bottom row of cells bound to basement membrane Avascularity no direct contact of epithelial cells with blood vessels nutrition comes via diffusion or absorption from underlying tissues Regeneration able to repair and renew themselves stem or germinative cells are found in deepest layer of epithelium near basement membrane

11 FUNCTIONS physical protection
protect underlying cells from abrasion, dehydration and destruction control permeability anything entering or leaving the body must cross an epithelium provide sensation some detect environmental changes & relay information to nervous system produce special secretions primary function of glandular epithelium

12 Specializations of Apical Surface
Microvilli finger-like projections increases surface area 20X specialized for absorption & secretion Cilia longer with larger diameter beat in coordinated fashion movement of fluids across & through epithelia

13 Classification of Epithelia
cell shape arrangement of cell layers

14 Arrangement of Layers Simple one layer of cells Pseudostratified
one layer that looks like several layers all cells attach to basement membrane Stratified several layers of cells stacked on top of each other

15 Function & Classification of Epithelia
Simple each cell rests on basement membrane one surface faces either lumen or outside world cells are thin same polarity typically fragile do not provide much protection against mechanical damage found only internally absorption or secretion Stratified basal layer of cells rests on basement membrane subsequent layers do not stacked on top of basal layer cells of only most superficial layer have free surface found in areas subjected to mechanical or chemical stresses skin & lining of mouth

16 Cell Shapes Squamous Cuboidal Columnar cells Transitional cells
flat & irregularly shaped often so thin that flattened nucleus bulges at cell surface Cuboidal about as tall as wide look like cubes or hexagonal boxes Nucleus-usually round & not flattened Columnar cells taller than wide look like columns Nucleus-usually elongated & found in long axis of cell Transitional cells go from squamouscuboidal & back again all organs to change shape


18 Simple Squamous one layer of squamous cells delicate
found in protected regions filtration or diffusion slick, slippery surfaces are needed to reduce friction substances can move quickly through

19 Simple Cuboidal one layer of cuboidal cells
specialized for secretion & absorption found in secretory portion of glands some cells may have a dense border of microvilli found in kidney tubules, pancreas & salivary glands

20 Simple Columnar one layer of columnar cells
found where absorption & secretion take place small intestine in small intestine epithelium has goblet cells which secrete mucus to protect and lubricate found with cilia in oviducts & respiratory tract

21 Stratified Squamous several layers of squamous cells
surface cells look squamous lower ones appear more cuboidal or columnar found where body experiences severe mechanical stresses cells are worn away quickly replaced rapidly by mitosis in lower layers outer layer of the skin- epidermis here mechanical stress and dehydration of the superficial layers is aided with keratin skin is said to be keratinized Non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found in mouth, pharynx & esophagus

22 Stratified Cuboidal typically only 2 cell layers of cuboidal cells
not a great quantity found in human body large ducts of sweat & mammary glands

23 Stratified Columnar rare found where 2 other types of epithelia meet
large ducts in pharynx, epiglottis, anus & urethra

24 Pseudostratified Epithelium
looks like stratified columnar appears layered but is not nuclei are at different levels but all cells rest on basement membrane not all same height often contains cilia & goblet cells found lining most of respiratory tract

25 Transitional Epithelium
multi-layered goes from cuboidal squamous and back again thicker, multilayered epithelium found in bladder tolerates great deal of stretching surface cells are more muffin-shaped cells are rounded when organ is not filled and flattens as organ fills

26 Glanduar Epithelia Gland Endocrine Exocrine
cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination from body composed primarily of epithelia tissue Endocrine ductless release hormones into interstitial fluid regulate or coordinate activity of other tissues, organs & organ systems Exocrine ducted release secretions into passageways or ducts which empty onto the skin or other epithelial surfaces produce enzymes & perspiration

27 Exocrine Gland Classification
Unicellular Multicellular Simple have single, unbranched duct Compound have branched duct

28 Exocrine Gland Classification
if duct & secretory part are equal in diameter-gland is tubular if secretory cells form sac-acinar if secretory cells are found both in tubular &acinar parts-tubuloacinar

29 Exocrine Gland Structure
Unicellular Multicellular Secretory sheets Tubular Alveolar (Acinar) Tubuloalveolar


31 Merocrine Glands most common sweat & mucus secreting release products via exocytosis

32 Apocrine Glands product accumulates in apical tip pinched off to secrete rest of gland repairs itself

33 Holocrine glands entire cell becomes packed with secretory product
cell bursts releasing secretion and in so doing kills the cell further secretion depends on replacement of gland cell sebaceous or oil glands associated with hair follicles

34 Connective Tissue widely spread throughout body
most diverse tissue type never exposed to outside environment highly vascularized-blood vessels are present (except cartilage & tendons) comprised of 3 basic components: specialized cells extracellular matrix protein fibers ground substance

35 Functions structural framework
binds muscle to bone, fat holds kidneys in place & fibrous tissues bind skin to underlying muscle supports the body protection for delicate organs such as brain & lungs immune protection defending body from microorganisms transports fluids & dissolved materials through body movement bones provide levers for body movement stores energy & generates heat

36 Cells each type of connective tissue has specialized cells at different stages of maturity Juvenile cells actively secrete matrix have suffix blast Mature cells have suffix-cyte Destructive cells have suffix clasts prefix is different for different types of connective tissues Cartilage-chondro Bone-osteo Blood-hemo

37 Protein Fibers Collagen fibers
long, straight, unbranched & very strong each fiber-bundle of fibrous protein subunits wound together like strands of rope Elastic fibers contain elastin able to stretch & recoil without damage Reticular fibers fine collagen fibers made of same protein subunits as collagen arranged differently forming a tough, flexible branching framework

38 Classification Embryonic mesenchyme & mucous types
found in embryo from third gestational month to birth tissue from which all connective tissue originates Mature Loose Dense Cartilage Bone Liquid

39 Loose Connective Tissue
packing material fills spaces between organs, cushions & stabilizes cells in organs & supports epithelia surrounds & supports blood vessels and nerves & stores lipid areolar, adipose & reticular

40 Areolar Connective Tissue
consists of an open framework ground substance accounts for most of its volume forms soft-pliable-packing material around tissues muscles, blood vessels & glands absorbs shock loose organization allows it to distort without damage presence of elastic fibers makes it able to return to original shape forms layer separating skin from deeper structures

41 Adipose Tissue composed mainly of adipocytes little matrix
cells have large vacuoles filled with fat fat droplet compresses cytoplasm around edges of cell organelles are squeezed to side insulation slows heat loss through skin shock absorber around organs

42 Reticular Connective Tissue
consists of network of reticular fibers & cells Found-spleen, lymph nodes & liver

43 Dense Connective Tissue
Dense regular collagen fibers regularly arranged in parallel forms ligaments which connect bone to bone & tendons which connect muscle to bones Dense irregular collagen fibers found in irregular arrangements forming interwoven meshworks provides strength & support for areas subjected to stress from many directions found in skin where it gives strength to lower layer forms sheath around cartilages-perichondrium & bones-periosteum forms thick, fibrous capsule around internal organs such as liver, kidney and spleen

44 Elastic Connective Tissue
contains great many elastin fibers give tissue flexibility found-vocal cords & ligaments which connect vertebrae

45 Supporting Connective Tissues-Cartilage
strong, flexible found throughout the body Matrix firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate which forms complexes with proteinsproteoglycans cells are chondrocytes found in chambers or lacunae avascular, blood cells do not grow into it three types : hyaline, elastic and fibrocartilage. Hyaline covers ends of long bones matrix consists of closely packed collagen fibers which makes it tough & flexible found connecting ribs to sternum, nasal cartilages, respiratory tract and as a cover in opposing bone surfaces in joints such as the knees & elbows. Elastic cartilage like hyaline-more elastin fibers making it flexible and resilient epiglottis & ear pinna Fibrocartilage looks like dense regular connective tissue matrix dominated by collagen fibers-densely interwoven making it durable, tough & more compressible than other cartilages found as intervertebral discs menisci of knees, between pubic bones, around or in joints and tendons resists compressions, absorbs shocks prevents bone to bone contact

46 Supporting Connective Tissues-Bone
osseous tissue support & protection, fat storage and blood cell formation small amount ofground substance Matrix-like cartilage but more rigid because of calcium salt-CaPO4 remainder is collagen fibers Ca salts make tissue hard & brittle Collage fibers make it strong & flexible Bone cells are called osteocytes found in lacunae organized around blood vessels that branch through the matrix osteocytes communicate with each other & blood vessels by canaliculi

47 Fluid Connective Tissue
Blood contains blood cells formed elements RBCs WBCs platelets suspended in liquid matrix- plasma which contains protein fibers for blood clotting Lymph

48 Membranes physical barriers composed of epithelia & supported by connective tissue cover & protect other tissues 4 types: Mucous Serous Cutaneous Synovial

49 Cutaneous Membranes cover body surface largest membrane in body skin
stratified squamous epithelium + layer of areolar connective tissue reinforced by underlying dense connective tissue thick, relatively water proof & usually dry

50 Mucus Membranes line cavities in communication with outside
mucosa consists of two to three layers an epithelium an areolar connective tissue layer (lamina propia) sometimes layer of smooth musclemuscularis mucosae absorptive, secretory & protective functions help keep epithelial surfaces moist with mucus made by goblet cells

51 Serous Membranes line sealed internal parts such as ventral body cavities simple squamous epithelium resting on thin layer of areolar connective tissue produce watery serous fluid pleura lines pleural cavity and covers lungs pericardium lines pericardial cavity covering heart each can be divided into parietal partlines inner surface of cavity and visceral part-covers outer surface of organs

52 Synovial Membranes surround joint cavities
Joints-articulations for bones allow for movement surrounded by fibrous capsule consisting of areolar tissue with matrix of interwoven collagen fibers, proteoglycans & glycoproteins space filled with synovial fluid

53 Muscle Tissue specialized for movement & contraction
3 types: skeletal, cardiac and smooth all contract alike but have different internal organizations Skeletal muscles have cells called fibers long & thin multinucleated often containing several hundred nuclei striated or striped due to repeating groups of cellular proteins actin and myosin-responsible for contraction cells contract when stimulated by nerves under voluntary control can be called striated voluntary muscle

54 Cardiac Muscle found only in the heart
striated like skeletal & arranged same uninucleate-may have 1-5-centrally located nuclie Cardiocyte-smaller than skeletal m. cell connected to one another via darkened bands between themintercalated discs special areas locked together by desmosomes, gap junctions & intercellular cement Ions move through gap junctions which coordinates contractions do not need nerve activity to contract pacemaker cells establish regular rate of contraction not under voluntary control striated involuntary muscle

55 Smooth Muscle Cells-small, spindle shaped with tapering ends
contain actin & myosin-not arranged in striated fashion cells are uninucleate found in digestive & urinary organs, uterus & blood vessel walls not under voluntary control non-striated involuntary

56 Nervous Tissue consists of neurons (nerve cells) & neuralgia cells
specialized to detect stimuli, respond quickly & transmit information each nerve cell has soma or cell body one long process-axon-transmits messages many smaller projections-dendrites-receive information

57 Exocrine Gland Structure Unicellular
e.g. Goblet cell


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