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© WTO/OMC1 Measuring Trade in Services Training Module.

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Presentation on theme: "© WTO/OMC1 Measuring Trade in Services Training Module."— Presentation transcript:

1 © WTO/OMC1 Measuring Trade in Services Training Module

2 © WTO/OMC2 n Characteristics and economic importance of services Importance of services Trade in services n GATS and modes of supply n Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services BOP FATS Modes of supply and statistical domains Overview

3 © WTO/OMC3 Services Intangible output of a production process PRODUCTION USERS NEED PRODUCTS GOODS (tangible) SERVICES (intangible) Key role in the economy transport, telecommunications… long term effects - environmental, educational services… Services value added = 2/3 Global GDP

4 © WTO/OMC4 Share of Services Value Added in GDP 2005, Selected countries

5 © WTO/OMC5 Share of Services in Total Employment , Selected countries * Except Brazil 2004, Egypt 2003 and China 2002.

6 © WTO/OMC6 Measuring Services Production (1/2) Statistics on domestic activity Value added broken down by industry (of which services) within the National Accounts framework Employment in the services sector within employment statistics (also part of the National Accounts) Information on specific services sectors from business statistics

7 © WTO/OMC7 Measuring Services Production (2/2) Complementary use of statistics: on international payments for telecommunications (source BOP) on international telecommunications traffic (source ITU) Quantitative indicators on specific services International telephone traffic BOP imports and exports

8 © WTO/OMC8 Commercial services Goods GDP

9 © WTO/OMC9 Specific Features of Trade in Services Services represent 20% of total world trade and account for the 2/3 of GDP Intangible nature Conventional trade statistics do not cover all international trade in services Services delivered by foreign affiliates > conventional international trade in services Many services require physical proximity of provider and consumer: services perceived as less easily tradable than goods

10 © WTO/OMC10 The GATS Set of rules covering international trade in services GATS Pillars Set of general obligations and disciplines Schedules of specific commitments Annexes on specific issues Commitments under GATS By services sectors By mode of supply

11 © WTO/OMC11 The GATS Modes of Supply (1/2) COUNTRY ACOUNTRY B Mode 1 : Cross-border Mode 2: Consumption abroad Mode 3: Commercial presence Company Commercial presence Direct investment Consumer Service supplier The service crosses the border The consumer is abroad Servic e supply Consumer in C Consumer Service supplier Consumer $ $ $ $ $ Servic e supply Servic e supply FATS + BOP construction Establish commercial presence

12 © WTO/OMC12 Mode 4: Presence of natural persons Juridical person Natural person An independent goes to country A COUNTRY ACOUNTRY B An employee is sent by a company of country B Commercial presence intra-corporate transferee Consumer C Consumer The GATS Modes of Supply (2/2) Servic e supply Service supply

13 © WTO/OMC13 The Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (2002) Guidelines and recommendations on the measurement of trade in services Balance of Payments statistics Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services statistics Movement of natural persons

14 © WTO/OMC14 Of interest for GATS purposes but... BOP Statistics - Short Presentation (1/2) BOP summarises transactions of an economy with the rest of the world BOP Current account Capital & financial account Goods Services Income Current transfers 11 components Transportation Travel Communications etc.

15 © WTO/OMC15 BOP Statistics - Short Presentation (2/2) More detail needed than 11 BPM5 services components MSITS introduces EBOPS (breakdown of BPM5 services) Most services delivered under Mode 3 and Mode 4 are not well covered or identified However, some BOP indicators helpful: Foreign Direct Investment Compensation of employees Workers remittances Mode 3Mode 4

16 © WTO/OMC16 FATS Statistics - Short Presentation Coverage Operations of foreign affiliates, Particular focus on services Indicators Turnover Employment Value added … Concepts & definitions Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services

17 © WTO/OMC17 Correspondence between modes of supply measurement and statistical domains Modes of supply Statistical domainsInadequacies Mode 1: Cross- border supply BOP: Commercial services (excl. travel, construction) No distinction between Modes 1 and 4 Mode 2: Consumption abroad BOP: TravelContains goods and not divided into different types of services consumed by travellers Some Mode 2 transactions also in other BOP categories Mode 3: Commercial presence FATS BOP: Construction FDI (suppl. information) Very few countries produce FATS No distinction between Modes 3-4 FDI cover not only (majority) controlled companies Mode 4: Presence of natural persons BOP: Commercial services (excl. travel) Compensation of employees, workers' remittances (suppl. info.) No distinction between Modes 1 (3 for construction) and 4 No relationship with Mode 4 but of interest for labour mobility

18 © WTO/OMC18 n Principles of recording Transactions and residence Other principles n The Extended Balance of Payments classification n Statistics by trading partner n Allocation of BOP/EBOPS items to modes of supply Statistics on Resident-Non Resident Trade in Services (BOP)

19 © WTO/OMC19 What is a transaction? What is a resident of a country? involves a real or financial resource, resource changes ownership. institutional units (individual, enterprise, association, government unit…) centre of economic interest, economic territory of the country. BOP Key Concepts Transactions between a countrys residents and rest of the World

20 © WTO/OMC20 Change in ownership of goods Provision of services Provision of labour Provision of capital Change in ownership of financial assets What is an International Transaction? INTERNATIONAL Residents / non-residents

21 © WTO/OMC21 What is a Services Transaction? International transactions in services International trade in services Countrys BOP CreditDebit Countrys residents Exports Imports

22 © WTO/OMC22 Centre of economic interest flexible one-year rule Concept of Residence Transactors Households / individuals Enterprises Others Countrys economic territory Principal residence Significant and lasting economic activity Geographic territory Territorial enclaves (e.g. embassies…)

23 © WTO/OMC23 Valuation and Other Principles of Recording Valuation Time of recording Unit of account Market prices (price agreed between seller and buyer) Time at which services are rendered (accrual accounting) Transactions converted to a common unit of account (national currency, USD)

24 © WTO/OMC24 What is it? product-based classification, consistent with 11 BPM5 services components, more detailed than BPM5 services components, includes additional memorandum items. How can it be used in GATS negotiations? Manual provides a table of correspondence between EBOPS/CPC Rev.1/ GATS list of services GNS/W/120. EBOPS Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification

25 © WTO/OMC25 EBOPS Main Components 3. Communications services 4. Construction services 5. Insurance services 6. Financial services 7. Computer and information services 8. Royalties and licence fees 9. Other business services 10. Personal, cultural and recreational services Commercial services: 1. Transportation 2. Travel Other commercial services 11.Government services (not in GATS)

26 © WTO/OMC26 EBOPS Detailed Components 2. Travel 1. Transport 3. Communications services …etc Sea transport (passenger, freight, other) Air transport (passenger, freight, other) Other transport (passenger, freight, other) Space, Rail, Road,... Business travel Expenditure by seasonal and border workers Other Personal travel Health-related expenditure Education-related expenditure Other Postal & courier Telecommunication … Breakdown of main components

27 © WTO/OMC27 EBOPS Memorandum Items and Alternative Aggregations Memorandum items: useful additional information: Example Audiovisual transactions Services: audiovisual services; audio- visual-related royalties and license fees Non-services: acquisition/disposal of audiovisual-related patents, copyrights… Aggregations of services and non-services transactions Example Expenditure on goods Expenditure on accommodation and food and beverages All other travel expenditure Travel

28 © WTO/OMC28 At least for... Services as a whole 11 main services components of BPM5/EBOPS Main trading partners If possible.... More detailed EBOPS level Common geographical basis for all trade in services data Balance of Payments Statistics by Trading Partner

29 © WTO/OMC29 Allocation of BOP/EBOPS Items to Modes of Supply As a first step, Manual proposes a simplified approach: Items deemed to be predominantly delivered through one mode Mode 1 Transportation (except supporting and auxiliary services to carriers in foreign ports), Communications services Insurance services Financial services Royalties and license fees Mode 2 Travel (excluding purchases of goods) Supporting and auxiliary services to carriers in foreign ports

30 © WTO/OMC30 Allocation of BOP/EBOPS Items to Modes of Supply Simplified approach (continued): Items for which significant elements of 2 modes of supply are involved Construction Computer and information services Other business services Personal, cultural and recreational services Mode 1 ? Mode 4 Mode 3 ?

31 © WTO/OMC31 n Principles for recording FATS statistics The FDI universe Firms covered Statistical units Time of recording n Economic variables n Attribution (classification) of FATS variables By country By activity and by services products Foreign Affiliates Trade in Services Statistics

32 © WTO/OMC32 Foreign Affiliate Trade in Services Statistics (FATS) Focus on services measuring Mode 3 (commercial pres.) Help understand the phenomenon of globalisation. Indicators that describe the activity of foreign affiliates Inward and outward FATS With a particular focus on services Guidelines for measuring the activity of foreign affiliates What are FATS statistics useful for? What do FATS statistics measure?

33 © WTO/OMC33 Principles Underpinning FATS Statistics SNA 1993 (National Accounts) BPM5 (BOP) OECD Benchmark Definition of FDI In line with international standards FDI statistics may be used as an interim indicator where FATS are not compiled

34 © WTO/OMC34 The FDI Universe FDI: the direct investor makes an international investment to obtain a lasting interest in an enterprise abroad Owns >10% shares, voting power or the equivalent Direct investment enterprise Associate Subsidiary Branch between 10 and 50% more than 50% wholly or jointly unincorporated enterprise individuals enterprises associated groups of individuals/enterprises governments... Country ACountry B Direct investor

35 © WTO/OMC35 Firms Covered in FATS Ownership criteria Majority-owned foreign affiliates (a single foreign investor owns more than 50% of their ordinary shares or voting power): Types of producers Affiliates producing goods, services Includes subsidiaries and branches Excludes associates

36 © WTO/OMC36 Statistical Units Units considered in FATS statistics may be Establishments of enterprises Enterprises Enterprise 1 Enterprise 2 Enterprise 3 Establishment 1a Establishment 1b Establishment 2a Establishment 2b Establishment 3a Establishment 2c = Enterprise 3

37 © WTO/OMC37 Time of Recording FATS Variables Accrual basis Period of recording Reference year Recording when the transaction occurs rather than when the related payment is made Flow variables reference year Stock variables end of reference year Calendar year in principle Explanatory note If only fiscal or accounting year is available

38 © WTO/OMC38 Economic Variables for FATS Sales (turnover) and/or output Employment Value added Exports and imports of goods and services Number of enterprises Basic FATS variables (minimum recommended by MSITS) Additional FATS variables Compensation of employees Taxes on income Research and development expenditures etc... Concepts in the MSITS

39 © WTO/OMC39 Geographical allocation Foreign-owned affiliates in the compiling country Compiling country Operations of foreign- owned affiliates Majority ownership Foreign investor Majority ownership Statistics on Inward FATS Immediate owner Foreign Investor Ultimate Beneficial Owner (UBO) Supplementary information Described Inward FATS Operations allocated to

40 © WTO/OMC40 Compiling country Statistics on outward FATS Operations of the foreign Affiliate Majority ownership Resident Investor Described Outward FATS Geographical allocation Foreign-owned affiliates of investors of the compiling country Foreign affiliate (holding company) Majority ownership Operations allocated to

41 © WTO/OMC41 Classification by Activity and by Product FATS are classified by activity According to their primary activity According to ISIC categories for foreign affiliates (ICFA) ICFA can be linked to EBOPS Long-term priority… Disaggregation of FATS variables by product

42 © WTO/OMC42 n The movement of natural persons in GATS Mode 4 service suppliers Temporary movement Relations to existing classifications n Statistics for measuring Mode 4 BOP statistics FATS statistics Migration statistics Other possible sources Improving Mode 4-related statistics The Movement of Natural Persons

43 © WTO/OMC43 Main Issues for Measuring Mode 4 Mode 4 in MSITS The Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services (MSITS) recognises that a statistical framework needs to be developed for measuring Mode 4 Annex in MSITS as a first step Main statistical issues Determining the coverage of Mode 4 Only fragmentary indicators available Determining the indicators to measure Mode 4

44 © WTO/OMC44 The Movement of Natural Persons in GATS Relevant framework GATS main text: mode 4 presence of natural persons GATS Annex movement of natural persons Description of Mode 4 in main text and annex Purpose of stay Fulfilling directly a service contract, whether as a service supplier (self-employed) or as an employee Duration of stay Temporary: Measures regarding citizenship, migration, residence and permanent employment are not covered Indirectly: Presence instrumental to supply of service: through commercial presence or supply at a later stage

45 © WTO/OMC45 Contractual service suppliers – Self-employed (independent) service suppliers – Employees of foreign service suppliers Who is covered by Mode 4? Intra-corporate transferees and persons directly recruited by the foreign affiliate Services sellers / Persons responsible for setting up commercial presence Areas of uncertainty difference between employment and service contract what does constitute a service? many commitments currently focus on highly-skilled workers

46 © WTO/OMC46 For which categories should we measure the value of services trade? Natural persons Value of service trade flows Contractual services suppliers -Self-employed - Employees of foreign service suppliers Intra-corporate transferees and directly recruited by foreign affiliate Services sellers - Persons responsible for setting up commercial presence Yes No

47 © WTO/OMC47 Options to assess Mode 4 delivery in surveys 1.Did the service delivery involve physical presence of service provider? Yes? Then, how was most of the service value provided (time/resources)? Mostly by fax, , etc. Natural person at the end (e.g. to supervise) The persons knowledge was essential to deliver the service Mode 4 2. Require in services surveys allocation by each GATS mode of supply 3. Require estimated share of services inputs for Mode 4 services trade Mode 1

48 © WTO/OMC48 For which categories should we measure the number of mode 4 persons? Natural persons Number of persons Contractual services suppliers -Self-employed - Employees of foreign service suppliers Intra-corporate transferees and directly recruited by foreign affiliate Services sellers - Persons responsible for setting up commercial presence Yes

49 © WTO/OMC49 Mode 4, migration and tourism statistics Non-Migrant categories Migrant categories Categories of the UN Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, revision 1:

50 © WTO/OMC50 UN CPC Basis for classifying services as product of economic activity, including services delivered through Mode 4 Industrial classification: relevant if statistics by occupation are not available Mode 4 and Existing Classifications ISCO-88 Distinguishes categories of employment: can facilitate linkages statistics/negotiations UN ISIC Status in employment: identifies « independent service provides » ICSE-93

51 © WTO/OMC But other indicators of interest for analysis Mode 3 and Foreign Direct Investment statistics (stocks and flows, important complement to FATS) Other FATS variables (number of service suppliers, employees, value of assets) Sectoral statistical frameworks: tourism, health Supplementary information from BPM6 linked to the movement of mode 4 persons Production, quantitative, employment indicators

52 © WTO/OMC52 n Data sources for BOP statistics International Transactions Reporting System (ITRS) Enterprise surveys Combining ITRS and enterprise surveys Other sources n Data collection systems for FATS statistics Key features for the collection of FATS statistics Examples of country practices n Data comparability and reliability BOP asymmetries IMF initiatives related to data quality Data Sources

53 © WTO/OMC53 Collection Systems for BOP Statistics Main alternatives for the collection of BOP statistics International Transaction reporting System (ITRS) Enterprise surveys A combination of both systems Possible supplementary sources Surveys of travellers and household expenditure surveys Official sources and government transactions Partner countries and International Organizations

54 © WTO/OMC54 ITRS Coverage All services transactions Responsibility (generally) the national central bank Respondents domestic banks (indirect reporting) residents holding accounts abroad or involved in clearing/netting schemes (direct reporting) Advantages timely, comprehensive, few respondents Limitations transactions proxied by payments, possible misclassifications

55 © WTO/OMC55 Coverage all service transactions Responsibility (generally) the national statistical office Respondents sampled enterprises who are international transactors Requisites high quality business register appropriate techniques for sample design, preparation of questionnaires, and processing of survey results Enterprise Surveys

56 © WTO/OMC56 ITRS and Enterprise Surveys - Examples System mainly based on enterprise surveys, with no use of ITRS e.g. United States, United Kingdom e.g. France Systems mainly based on ITRS, using a limited form of enterprise surveys e.g. Netherlands Systems mainly based on enterprise surveys, using a limited form of ITRS Great benefits to be drawn from co-operation between different institutions

57 © WTO/OMC57 Other Sources for BOP Interest of BOP compiler to co-operate with other institutions Surveys of travellers Surveys conducted at borders (e.g. migration surveys) Household expenditure surveys Official sources Government transactions Statistics as a by-product of official institutions activities Other sources Data from partner countries Data from International Organizations

58 © WTO/OMC58 Collection Systems for FATS Statistics Two different populations, requiring different approaches Inward: enterprises surveyed directly on their activity (easier to collect) Outward: resident parent companies surveyed on the activity of their affiliates abroad Different systems for collecting FATS statistics Surveys collecting FATS data Identify FATS in statistics on resident enterprises Only for Inward FATS Links with FDI in both cases (identification of the FATS population)

59 © WTO/OMC59 Surveys Collecting FATS Two possibilities Add FATS variables to FDI surveys Specific surveys for FATS Commonly considered preferable because but... Burden on FDI-non-FATS enterprises FDI surveys: conducted frequently and require quick turnaround Information to be collected: key FATS variables at the greatest detailed level of ICFA

60 © WTO/OMC60 Existing Statistics on Resident Enterprises Which sources? How can FATS statistics be obtained? identify inward FATS population within resident enterprises, and aggregate data collected across the foreign-owned population of resident enterprises Existing statistics on resident enterprises (employment, turnover…) Only for inward FATS

61 © WTO/OMC61 Only inward collected, based on resident enterprise statistics Examples of Country Practices for Collecting FATS Inward and outward collected on the basis of FDI surveys e.g. United States e.g. Belgium Outward based on FDI surveys, inward on resident enterprise statistics e.g. Denmark, Spain e.g. Sweden Inward and outward collected through a separate survey

62 © WTO/OMC62 BOP Bilateral Asymmetries Country A CreditDebit BOP Country B CreditDebit BOP BOP transaction importexport Recorded import Recorded export Difference = Bilateral asymmetry =

63 © WTO/OMC63 Asymmetries: Types, Causes, Corrections Different types of asymmetries Bilateral (two countries) Mutilateral (e.g. intra-EU) Global (World): for services, imports > exports Why? How can they be corrected? misallocations, different recording thresholds, difficult geographical identification... « bottom-up » approach: study of causes and reconciliation « top-down » approach: mathematical model allocates asymmetries

64 © WTO/OMC64 Data Quality: IMF Initiatives Two initiatives to assess data quality SDDS Identifies best practices in the dissemination of data 4 dimensions: the data, public access to the data, integrity of the data, and data quality Concerns specific countries, which must observe specific standards GDDS Approach similar to SDDS with respect to data quality Open to all IMF Members Less prescriptive than SDDS Emphasis: long-term

65 © WTO/OMC65 n BOP trade in services data BOP/EBOPS International dissemination n Information available on commercial presence Availability and dissemination of FATS statistics Alternative: FDI data Data Availability and Dissemination by International Organizations

66 © WTO/OMC66 Availability of BOP/EBOPS Data on Trade in Services Compilation of trade in services is relatively well established and widespread BPM5 standard components widely compiled: the number of countries reporting these data has more than doubled since 1997 (breakdown of exports) Significant progress was made in compiling more detailed items, and in compiling a breakdown by partner country

67 © WTO/OMC67 … broken-down by type of service? … broken-down geographically? International Dissemination of BOP/EBOPS Statistics (1/2) Where can I find statistics on trade in services... Eurostat, OECD, IMF, UNSD these organisations are collecting data on an EBOPS basis Eurostat OECD UNSD

68 © WTO/OMC68 International Dissemination of BOP/EBOPS Statistics (2/2) PublicationCoverage By type of service By partner country IMF Balance of Payments Statistics (+ITC Trade Map) (book, on-line and CD-ROM) IMF members BPM5 and EBOPS (provided to IMF on voluntary basis) No Eurostat Database (book, on-line and CD-ROM) EU members, total EU, euro area, EU candidate countries EBOPS Up to 115 partner economies and regions (270 for total services) OECD Statistics on Inter- national Trade in Services Volume 1 by Service Category Volume 2 by Partner Country (book, on-line and CD-ROM) OECD members; Hong Kong and Russian Federation for partner detail EBOPS (and additional detail) Up to 115 partner economies and regions (270 for total services) UN ServiceTrade (on-line) 190 economies (around 40 with partner detail) EBOPS Up to 115 partner economies and regions (270 for total services) WTO's International Trade Statistics (book, on-line and CD-ROM) All economies Summary data and analysis Summary data and analysis

69 © WTO/OMC69 Collection of FATS Statistics Collected by Eurostat and OECD Inward and outward FATS: by activity (37 categories of ISIC) by country of origin/destination of investment Common questionnaire to member countries: OECD: Measuring globalisation: the role of Multinationals in OECD economies Eurostat: publication in the Statistics in focus series, and in the New Cronos reference database UNCTAD: World Investment Report Dissemination:

70 Availability of FATS Statistics

71 © WTO/OMC71 FDI Statistics as an Alternative State of implementation Many countries collect FDI flows, with geographical and activity breakdown (more data for inward than outward) Fewer countries collect FDI income flows Collection and dissemination Eurostat and OECD: FDI inward and outward stock, flows and income (by industry and country) IMF: FDI positions, flows and income, no industry and partner breakdown UNCTAD

72 © WTO/OMC72 n Implementation: phased approach of MSITS 5 core recommendations 5 other recommended elements n Recent progress and short-term plans n Prospects for trade in services statistics Areas for improvement Future work Current State and Prospects

73 © WTO/OMC73 Implement BPM5 recommendations for trade in services MSITS Phased Approach to Implementation 5 core elements Compile BOP services according to EBOPS, starting with items of major economic importance to the country Compile FDI by ISIC categories of activity Compile basic FATS variables broken down by ICFA categories of activity Compile statistics by partner country

74 © WTO/OMC74 Full implementation of EBOPS MSITS Phased Approach to Implementation 5 other elements (long-term) Compile FATS additional detail Compile statistics on the presence of natural persons Split BOP trade in services among trade between related parties / trade with unrelated parties Allocate BOP trade in services by mode of supply

75 © WTO/OMC75 Recent Progress (1/3) for BPM5 main items, but also for more detailed items Dramatic improvement of quality and quantity of statistics on resident/non-resident trade in services FATS statistics are increasingly compiled a multi-country set of statistics available for major services categories

76 © WTO/OMC76 Recent progress (2/3) on the compilation of FATS statistics Eurostat: 2 regulations IMF collect data according to EBOPS from 2003 on a voluntary basis FATS and EBOPS have become binding in EU member states on BOP statistics, embodying EBOPS

77 © WTO/OMC77 Recent progress (3/3) expand the collection of BOP trade in services by partner country request BOP trade in services broken down by EBOPS OECD: UNSD: dissemination of EBOPS trade in services by partner country from for OECD and non-OECD countries UNCTAD: expand data collection on FATS

78 © WTO/OMC78 Areas Where Improvements are Needed Many countries still do not report the full BPM5 detail Lack of reliability Documentation on coverage and deviations from international standards rarely available BOP trade in services Lack of reliability and comparability Almost no FATS collected outside OECD Confidentiality severely limits data availability FATS No framework for statistics by mode of supply, in particular for Mode 4

79 © WTO/OMC79 Need for a revised Manual Incorporate BPM6 and SNA revisions + ISIC, CPC, Tourism statistics.... New recommendations relating to activities of foreign affiliates: –OECD Handbook on Economic Globalisation Indicators –OECD Benchmark Definition of FDI –Eurostat recommendations Manual Need for guidance for mode 4 and modes of supply generally... 1 st worlwide consultation in 2006

80 © WTO/OMC80 Next steps for the Revision of MSITS May 2006 – April 2009 Worldwide consultation on scope of update and issues TFSITS reviewed worldwide consultation responses Started drafting of Chapter on modes of supply and updating/drafting of other chapters Consultation with 2007 OECD-Eurostat Expert meeting and 2008 Working Party on International Trade in Goods and Services. Progress report to IMF BOPCOM and UN Statistical Commission Draft chapters agreed by TFSITS 2 nd Worldwide consultation on complete draft of revised MSITS TFSITS to review comments and re-draft MSITS chapters TFSITS meeting: review comments and revised draft; cross-cutting issues Summer 2009: Finalize draft and chapters and post for final review November 2009: Prepare submission to UNSC March 2010: Draft submitted to UN Statistical Commission Revised Manual in 2010!

81 © WTO/OMC81 need for technical assistance in the area of services statistics prepare Compilation Guide concentrate on further methodological work Interagency Task Force on Statistics of International Trade in Services Future Work

82 © WTO/OMC82 Keys for Improvement of Statistics Efforts by national agencies in charge of statistics Governments willingness to allocate resources to statistics Co-operation between national institutions Co-operation between international and regional institutions, and support to national initiatives Effective technical assistance Compilation guidance

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