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New Concepts and Advances (Arthroscopic) for the Treatment of Shoulder Pain William F Bennett MD.

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Presentation on theme: "New Concepts and Advances (Arthroscopic) for the Treatment of Shoulder Pain William F Bennett MD."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Concepts and Advances (Arthroscopic) for the Treatment of Shoulder Pain William F Bennett MD

2 The Simple Shoulder While a complex joint with complex function, general approaches to determining the non-descript, cause….is easy! I.e., intrinsic versus extrinsic

3 Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Intrinsic- later and more descript…means pain coming from the shoulder joint itself Extrinsic- pain that may cause shoulder pain but comes from sources outside the shoulder

4 Extrinsic Most common- cervical spine Pancoast tumors of the lung Thoracic spine Peritoneal/Splenic irritation can cause pain at Erbs point Angina/MI Metabolic/Oncologic problems, ie., bone marrow involvement like lymphoma/leukemia, parathyroid

5 Extrinsic-Cervical Spine General rule- -trapezial pain-cervical -deltoid pain- intrinsic or from the shoulder Can have both shoulder and cervical spine affected which makes it more difficult Cervical spine may have radicular involvement

6 Intrinsic Once extrinsic has been ruled out then one can focus on the intrinsic causes. If a certain shoulder motion whether it be flexion, abduction, external rotation or internal rotation causes pain in the deltoid area and not in the trapezial area, one is probably dealing with an intrinsic problem

7 Before discussing intrinsic Causes Lets diverge and discuss the anatomy and function of the shoulder

8 Anatomy 4 joints-two are articulations –Glenohumeral joint –Acromioclavicular joint –Scapulothoracic articulation –Sternocalvicular articulation/joint –Discuss Bones-Bone models

9 Ligaments/Capsule Capsule is the sac –Normal sac allows motion in various planes –Abnormal sac restricts motion in various planes Ligaments- hold bone to bone –Glenohumeral ligaments –Coracohumeral ligaments –Coracoacromial ligaments –Coracoclavicular ligaments

10 Muscles/Tendons Rotator Cuff are a confluence of 4 tendons from the following respective muscle bellies –Supraspinatus –Subscapularis –Infraspinatus –Teres minor –Biceps –Deltoid Bone models

11 Bursae/Cartilage/Meniscus Subacromial Bursae Subdeltoid bursae Subcoracoid bursae Glenohumeral articular cartilage Acromioclavicular meniscus

12 Intrinsic Diagnoses Impingement –Tendonitis –Bursitis –Rotator Cuff tear-complete –Rotator Cuff tear-partial –others

13 Intrinsic Diagnoses Acromioclavicular joint irritation/arthritis Glenohumeral joint osteoarthritis Rheumatologic joint Pigmented Villonodular synovitis Chondrometaplasia Tumors-giant cell, synovial sarcoma

14 Intrinsic Diagnoses Instability/Subluxation-repetitive/chronic Atraumatic/multidirectional Dislocation –Traumatic unidirectional Biceps –Inflammation –Instability/subluxation –Tendonitis/avulsion

15 Intrinsic Diagnoses History compatible Physical exam compatible Radiologic exam compatible MRI/MRA compatible Less so- blood work, others –Each is a piece of the puzzle

16 Physical Exam Observation Palpation Range of Motion Strength Test Specific Tests for lesions Hoppenfeld- Examination of the Extremies

17 Treatment ITIS- inflammation- tendonitis, bursitis –Rest, avoidance, NSAIDS, injections, therapy Osteoarthritis- above plus possible total shoulder replacement, ac joint Rotator Cuff Tears-above +/- repair Instability/Dislocation-+/- repair Frozen Shoulder Biceps Inflammation –The arthroscope has become an important tool for diagnosis and treatment in virtually all afflictions of the shoulder

18 Arthroscope Fiber optic device Triangulate-the surgeon never sees the actual inside of the joint- it is projected upon a monitor and as such, the working tools, triangulate to the point of focus Minimally invasive Less pain Less rehabilitation

19 Treatment Nsaids- short-term Physical therapy Injections Surgery

20 Physical Therapy Treat Inflammation- Iontophoresis Treat Tight Areas Stretch Treat Weakness Strentghen- rotator cuff muscles scapular stabilizers

21 Injections Must have correct diagnosis Patient may have more than one pain location Lidocaine Injection test Areas- –Subacromial space –Glenohumeral joint –Ac joint –Bicipital sheath

22 Shoulder Pain-traditionally was treated with long delays in surgical intervention-Why? Shoulder pathology not well understood Open repair required extensive incisions Rehabilitation was long –Most importantly, in times past, the primary care givers was, in general, under-the- impression that shoulder surgical intervention was not that effective

23 Arthroscopic Intervention utilized in Impingement-bursitis, tendonitis Rotator cuff tears Instability or dislocation AC joint arthritis And yes even in Osteoarthritis

24 Arthroscope has allowed for the further identification of subtle shoulder pathology, previously not identified See articles- 1) Bennett WF. Subscapularis, Medial and Lateral Head Coracohumeral Ligament Insertion Anatomy: Arthroscopic Appearance and Incidence of "Hidden" Rotator Interval Lesions. Arthroscopy Feb. 17(2) ) Bennett WF. Visualization of the Anatomy of the Rotator Interval. Arthroscopy

25 Arthroscopic Prospective outcomes are now Published See Articles- Bennett WF: Arthroscopic Repair of Bennett WF: Arthroscopic Repair of Complete Anterosuperior Rotator Cuff Tears. 2 Year Follow-up. Arthroscopy, January 2003 Bennett WF: Arthroscopic Repair of Complete Subscapularis Tears. 2 Year Follow-up. Arthroscopy, February 2003 Bennett WF: Arthroscopic Repair of Complete Supraspinatus Tears. 2 Year Follow-up. Arthroscopy, March 2003 Bennett WF: Arthroscopic Repair of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears. 2-Year Follow-up Arthroscopy, April 2003

26 Natural History of Rotator Cuff Tears Recurrence of pain Tears get bigger with time Results of surgical intervention deteriorates with time Muscle turns to fat Tendon becomes inelastic

27 At this Point Most recently anatomy surrounding the rotator cuff and its interrelationship with the bicipital sheath has been identified, clarified, classified, arthroscopic reapir techniques developed and outcome studies published. At this point I will move to the details of clinical research that I have been performing for the last 12 years.

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