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Volcanic Activity.

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Presentation on theme: "Volcanic Activity."— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanic Activity

2 How Magma Reaches the Surface
Magma forms in the (asthenosphere) mantle. Magma is less dense than solid material so it rises toward the surface. When a volcano erupts, dissolved gases form bubbles that rush out, taking the magma with them (like opening a can of soda pop) the magma with them. Like When a volcano Reaches Earths Surface

3 Inside a Volcano Pipe: a long tube in the ground that connects the chamber to the Earth’s surface. Vent: where magma, and gas leave the volcano. Lava flow: the river of lava that comes out and over the land. Lava: Magma that reaches the surface is called lava. Crater: a bowl-shaped area that forms around the vent. Magma chamber: collects in pockets beneath the volcano.

4 Characteristics of Magma
The force of an eruption depends on four things…… Amount of gas in magma How thick or thin the magma is Its temperature Silica content Silica also determines how easily the magma flows. More silica = thicker and lighter colored lava = sticky Makes obsidian and Rhyolite and pumice Less Silica = darker colored lava + flows easily Makes basalt

5 Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Quiet Eruptions Magma is thin and flows easily Pahoehoe: is a fast-moving hot lava, mass of wrinkles, billows and ropelike coils when it hardens. AA: is a slow moving cool lava, rough and jagged when it hardens Explosive Eruptions- thick magma, pipe gets plugged and explodes when pressure builds up. Causes pyroclastic flow explosive eruption hurls out gas, ash (sand-like), cinders (pebble sized), and bombs (larger pieces, ranging from baseball to car sized).

6 Stages of a Volcano Active or live volcano that is erupting or shows signs that it erupt in the near future. Dormant or sleeping – scientists expect the volcano to erupt in the future and become active. Extinct or dead is unlikely to erupt again.

7 Volcanic Landforms

8 Landforms from Lava & Ash
A. Shield Volcanoes B. Cinder Cone Volcanoes C. Composite Volcanoes D. Lava Plateaus E. Calderas

9 Shield Volcanoes                                            Thin layers of lava pour out of a vent and harden on top of previous layers. Build a wide, gently sloping mountain. Hawaiian Islands are shield volcanoes over a hot spot.                                           

10 Mauna Loa, Hawaii

11 Cinder Cone Volcanoes A steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain.
Ash, cinders, and bombs pile up around the vent. Cinders erupt explosively. Sunset crater is an example.

12 Composite Volcanoes A steep, cone-shaped volcano built up of layers and of rock fragments. Steep at the top, flatens at the bottom Magma- high in silica, making it pasty. Erupt explosively. Mount St. Helens and Mount Rainier are examples.

13 St. Augustine volcano, Alaska.

14 Lava Plateaus Continued eruptions form high, level areas.
Lava flows out of several long cracks, and after millions of years, these layers form high plateaus. Example: Columbia Plateau

15 Columbia Plateau

16 Calderas A huge eruption may empty the main vent and the magma chamber beneath the volcano. Mountain becomes a hollow shell and the top collapses in. Huge hole left is called a caldera. Example: Crater Lake, Oregon


18 Poas Volcano, Costa Rica Crater Lake, Oregon

19 Volcano Hazards Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980 after 123 years of being dormant. Before that people viewed it as a peaceful mountain. Quiet eruption hazards- lava flows from vents, burning everything in their path. Explosive eruption hazards- volcano will send out burning clouds of volcanic gases, cinders and bombs. Volcanic ash can bury entire towns, damage crops and clog car engines. Wet ash can cause roofs to collapse and plane engines to stall.

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