Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Volcanic Activity EQ: What occurs when a volcano erupts? How do the different type of eruptions differ?

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Volcanic Activity EQ: What occurs when a volcano erupts? How do the different type of eruptions differ?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Volcanic Activity EQ: What occurs when a volcano erupts? How do the different type of eruptions differ?

2 How Magma Reaches Earth ’ s Surface Magma rises because it is less dense that the surrounding solid material

3 What happens when a volcano erupts? As the less dense magma rises, the pressure decreases The dissolved gas separates out and bubbles form A volcanic erupts when an opening develops in weak rock on the surface During a volcanic eruption, the gases dissolved in magma rush out, carrying the magma with them Once magma reaches the surface and becomes lava, the gases bubble out

4 Inside a Volcano

5 Magma Chamber The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects

6 Pipe A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth’s surface

7 Vent The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano

8 Where are vents located? Usually there is one central vent at the top of the volcano Often times there are additional vents that open on the volcanoes sides

9 Lava Flow The area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano’s vent

10 Crater A bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcano’s central opening Lava collects there

11 How does magma rise through the lithosphere? Liquid magma in the asthenosphere is less dense than the rock in the lithosphere above it, so it flows upward through cracks in the rock –The magma is stored in the magma chamber It continues upward (through the pipe) until it reaches the surface (exiting through a vent) or it is trapped beneath layers of rock.

12 Silica A material that is found in magma,formed from the elements oxygen and silicon The more silica the magma has the thicker it is

13 Three factors contribute to how forceful a volcanic eruption is. Amount of gas present How thick or thin the magma is (Temperature) –Thinner (hotter) is more fluid The silica content –If the silica content is high, magma is thick –This causes the pressure to build

14 Types of Volcanic Eruptions

15 Quiet Eruptions Classified as a quiet eruption if its magma flows easily The gas in this magma bubbles out gently Quiet eruptions produce two types of lava: –Pahoehoe – (pah HOH ee hoh ee) – aa – (Ah ah)

16 Pahoehoe A hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils. Cools slowly resulting in a smooth texture

17 Aa A cooler, slow- moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks; cooler than Pahoehoe. Cools more quickly

18 What accounts for the differences between these two types of lava? The temperature of the lava The speed at which the lava flows

19 Explosive Eruptions Magma that is thick and sticky causes a volcano to erupt explosively Magma can not flow freely causing pressure (gas) to build up until it explodes

20 Pyroclastic flow The expulsion of ash, cinders, and bombs from a violent volcanic explosion

21 How do the two types of volcanic eruptions differ? Quiet eruptions occur when the lava flows more easily because gas dissolved in the magma bubbles When the lava is thick and sticky the gas continues to store increasing pressure –When the pressure becomes so great an explosion takes place when the gas pushes the magma out with incredible force

22 Three Stages of Volcanoes Active –A volcano that is erupting or has shown signs that it may erupt in the near future Dormant –A volcano that is not currently active, but may become active in the future Extinct –A volcano that is unlikely to erupt again

23 Hot Spring A pool formed by groundwater that has risen to the surface after being heated by a nearby body of magma

24 Geyser A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals

25 Geothermal Energy Energy from water and steam that has been heated by magma Geothermal energy is produced by drilling a well into the ground where thermal activity is occuring. Once a well has been identified and a well head attached, the steam is separated from the water, the water is diverted through a turbine engine which turns a generator. Usually the water is injected back into the ground to resupply the geothermal source.

26 Monitoring the activity of a volcano Measure tilt caused by magma movement underground using tiltmeters & laser-ranging devices Monitor temperature underground Monitor small earthquakes that occur in the area around a volcano

27 Hazards of Volcanoes Fire Bury entire towns Damage crops Landslides Avalanches of mud Damage car and jet engines

Download ppt "Volcanic Activity EQ: What occurs when a volcano erupts? How do the different type of eruptions differ?"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google