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Development Communication External Affairs Vice Presidency The World Bank.

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Presentation on theme: "Development Communication External Affairs Vice Presidency The World Bank."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Communication External Affairs Vice Presidency The World Bank

2 From CAS to Project Loan From ESW to Actual Reforms Development is about: which needs to be sustainable and accepted by societies and people Change Social transformation

3 Increased democratization of the development process Demand for transparency A holistic approach: economic, social, political, institutional, cultural and environmental issues to be considered Demand for increased peoples participation in decision making The New Development Process

4 The Process Demands Listening Public Awareness and Understanding Consensus Partnership Social Ownership

5 Sound technical & financial policy (Project, ESW) Desired Outcome Implementation Ownership Input from political economy, social, cultural context

6 Things Didnt Go Right in the Past, OED Reports… Throughout the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Program in Lao PDR, the government was hindered by a lack of consensus among groups, some of whom found the market-oriented reforms culturally alien. - Performance Audit Report: Lao PDR: SAC I & SAC II, 1995 The OED study finds that though the Banks policy advice was sound, little privatization had taken place by 1992. One of the major obstacles has been distrust of the benefits of the privatization measures on the part of the population. - Industrial Sector Reorientation in East Africa, 1994

7 OED Also Reports… Polands Economic Transformation Program has shown that building up and maintaining political support for reforms is essential to the success of any economic transformation program. Although the Polish economic team had a clear vision, it did not succeed in sharing that vision with the public at large. Mass demonstrations and widening divisions within the coalition led to erosion of parliamentary support and eventual change in government, making further enactment of reforms difficult. - Performance Audit Report: Poland: Structural Adjustment Loan, 1995 In terms of Bank assistance, the recommendations are: Making better use of ESW. More resources need to be allocated to dissemination and constituency building. - Kingdom of Morocco Country Assistance Review, 1997

8 Assessing Aid findings Projects that sought beneficiaries involvement achieved 68% success, those which didnt, achieved 10% success Compelling case studies that suggest stimulating public debate leads to reform and better performance

9 No Economic Reform Understanding by Leadership Public Understanding % of Respondents Rating Impediment as Serious Obstacle to Economic Reforms Recently* No Sense of Crisis Social & Poverty Considerations Weak Institutional Capacity Lack of Cohesive Reform Team No Economic Reform Understanding by Population Corruption & Vested Financial Interests Short-Term Political Factors All Respondents Public Sector Respondents *Survey of senior public service and civil society representatives from 63 developing/emerging economies Kaufmann, D., Listening to Stakeholders on Development Challenges and WB Instruments in their Countries, 1996

10 Constraint Causes Effects Lack of consensus Lack of information Weak government commitment Lack of political will Slow process Ideological beliefs Reluctance to sell profitable enterprises Vested interests Political uncertainty Historical setting Tardiness Democratization Investor uncertainty Forthcoming elections Inadequate Weak institutional and Lack of transparency management human resources capacity Distrust of valuation methods capacity Lack of commitment Poor design and preparation Fragmentation Incomplete transactions Legal constraints Old legislation Insufficient authority given to Lack of commitment agency Weak judicial system Slow process Lack of ownership Institutional jealousies and Lack of consensus of the program government interference Lack of involvement of Perception of program as driven indigenous private sector by external agencies Donor driven Tardiness *Oliver Campbell White and Anita Bhatia, The World Bank, 1998 Top Five Constraints on Privatization in Africa*

11 The New Political Battleground For opponent of Privatization, who believe that access to clean water is a human right, The Cochabamba Water War became an event of surpassing interests. There are many signs that other poor communities, especially in Third World cities, may start refusing to accept deals that put a foreign corporations hand on the neighborhood pump or household tap. Water actions may turn out to test the limits of the global privatization gold rush. The New Yorker, April 8 th, 2002 Local concerns become immediately global

12 Strategic Communication or Communication for Behavior Change the development of programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences to achieve management objectives.

13 A Process in Need of Professional Expertise Aguas del Tunari seemed to have given little thought to how its plans would be received in Cochabamba. The International Water executives who were actually doing the work in the city were engineers, not marketers, and being newly arrived abroad, they were not attuned to the problems or passions of the Bolivian Public. Geoffrey Thorpe, the company's manager, simply said that if people didnt pay their water bills their water would be turned off. The New Yorker, April 8 th, 2002

14 Projects/Initiatives Should be Assessed from a Communication Perspective Pre-approval Approval Post-approval Communication Continuum

15 DevComm is a Management Tool that Deals with Five Key Decisions: 1)Audience: Clustered according to position/interest 2)Behavior and attitude: Change in behavior and attitude needed 3)Messages: Appropriate for different segments of audience 4)Channels: Effective and with appropriate capacity 5)Evaluation: Success/failure of communication strategy

16 The Process of Strategic Communication Communication Research/Assessment Communication Design and Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation 3 STAGES/PHASES:

17 The Process of Strategic Communication Main Functions: Dialogue among Stakeholders and Situation Analysis Main Tools: Audit, Opinion Polls, Surveys, PRCA, etc. Main Outcome: Consensus on Objectives STAGE/PHASE : Communication Research/Assessment

18 STAGE/PHASE : Communication Design and Implementation Main Functions: Design Strategy to Achieve Change Main Tools: Related Approaches and Media Products Main Outcome: Intended Change Achieved The Process of Strategic Communication

19 STAGE/PHASE: Monitoring and Evaluation Main Functions: Indicators for Formative and Summative Evaluation Main Tools: Baselines, Surveys, Polls, PME, etc. Main Outcomes: Process on Right Track, Proof of Change Achieved The Process of Strategic Communication

20 Development Communications Helps In Guatemala, workers supported privatization when they were approached innovatively and strategically through their wives with share-options and benefits circumventing opposing union leaders. Adam Smith Institute, 2001

21 Development Communication Helps Reform Program in Cote dIvoire Succeeded with Planned Communication to: Build consensus for reforms Look into political, cultural and social dimensions along with economic issues Share experience from other developing countries. OED Report, 2000

22 Development Communications Helps In Cape Verde, Privatization Program Succeeded as Strategic Communications Focused on: Political commitment and support to privatization Ownership building and stakeholder participation Labor retrenchment through consultation and Communication campaigns to build public support and ensure transparency. OED Report, 1998

23 Summary Notes Analyze and incorporate in the planning stage the socio-political context of the reform Define the scope of the public debate Actively listen to stakeholders and engage in an ongoing dialogue Manage expectations Make use of communication specialists Build political and social consensus Promote local ownership

24 The path to true invincibility lies in victory without battle and strength through understanding Sun Tzu

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