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Echinoderms Spiny Skinned Animals. Echinoderm Characteristics Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) All marine.

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Presentation on theme: "Echinoderms Spiny Skinned Animals. Echinoderm Characteristics Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) All marine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Echinoderms Spiny Skinned Animals

2 Echinoderm Characteristics Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) Radial Symmetry ( aboral and oral sides) All marine All marine Most pentamerous Most pentamerous No heart, gills, lungs, brain, or eyes No heart, gills, lungs, brain, or eyes Nutrients and gases transported in fluid that fills body cavity Nutrients and gases transported in fluid that fills body cavity Water vascular system Water vascular system Calcium carbonate internal skeleton Calcium carbonate internal skeleton Nervous system is simple nerve net Nervous system is simple nerve net

3 Spiny skinned because of the calcium carbonate internal skeleton

4 Water Vascular System Hydraulic system containing Tube Feet Hydraulic system containing Tube Feet Used for: Used for:locomotionattachmentsensationfeeding gas exchange

5 Water Vascular System Madreporite Ring Canal Radial Canal With Ampullae

6 Water Vascular System

7 Water Vascular System Tube Feet

8 Tube feet and ampulla

9 Feeding Some carnivorous (sea stars) Some carnivorous (sea stars) Some detritus foragers ( sea cucumbers) Some detritus foragers ( sea cucumbers) Some planktonic feeders (feather stars and basket stars) Some planktonic feeders (feather stars and basket stars) Many have mouth on oral surface and anus on aboral surface. Sea stars can extend stomach out of mouth and engulf and digest prey Many have mouth on oral surface and anus on aboral surface. Sea stars can extend stomach out of mouth and engulf and digest prey Sea cucumbers can eviscerate gut Sea cucumbers can eviscerate gut

10 Sea Star feeding on clam

11

12 Reproduction The sexes are separate in most The sexes are separate in most Many release sperm and egg into water Many release sperm and egg into water Most form pelagic bilaterally symmetrical larvae Most form pelagic bilaterally symmetrical larvae Asexual reproduction and Regeneration Asexual reproduction and Regeneration

13 Echinoderm Pelagic planktonic larvae Brittle Star Larvae Sea Urchin Larvae Sea Star Larvae

14 Echinoderms : Five Classes Sea Stars (Astroidea) Sea Stars (Astroidea) Brittle Stars, Basket Stars (Ophiuroidea) Brittle Stars, Basket Stars (Ophiuroidea) Sea Urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars (Echinoidea) Sea Urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars (Echinoidea) Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) Feather Stars, sea Lillies (Crinoidea) Feather Stars, sea Lillies (Crinoidea)

15 Sea Stars (Asteroidea) 1500 living species 1500 living species Usually 5 rays radiating from central disk Usually 5 rays radiating from central disk Many are active carnivores Many are active carnivores Excessive numbers can harm marine ecosystems Excessive numbers can harm marine ecosystems Ability to regenerate entire body from one arm and portion of central disk Ability to regenerate entire body from one arm and portion of central disk

16 West Indian Sea Stars Juvenile and Adult CR-271 / 367 Shallow sea grass beds and sandy flats

17 West Indian Cushion Star in a Turtle Grass bed

18 West Indian Cushion Star Four Rays Only

19 Cushion star

20 Cushion star Oral view

21 West Indian Cushion Star Six Rays

22 Seven Ray Cushion Star

23 Thorny Sea Stars CR-277/365 found on rock rubble and mangrove roots (same genus as Orange-ridged sea star)

24 Thorny Sea Star often found hiding under rocks

25 Two-Spined Sea Star Oral View CR-277/363 Notice the ambulacral groove on reach ray

26 Two-Spined Sea Star Aboral View most often found on sandy bottoms in shallow waters- often burrow into sand

27 Comet Stars CR-275/361 found on reef - notice the different numbers of rays- why the name Comet?

28

29 Brittle Stars, Basket Stars, Serpent Stars (Ophiuroidea) Usually 5 thin, flexible arms radiate from central disk Usually 5 thin, flexible arms radiate from central disk Brittle stars – 2000 species – most numerous Brittle stars – 2000 species – most numerous Most active echinoderm Most active echinoderm swift snake-like movements swift snake-like movements often hiding under rocks during day feed on detritus at night Basket stars have complex branched arms used to catch plankton

30 Banded-Arm Brittle Star CR-285/375

31 Blunt Spined Brittle Star CR-283/373

32 Red Brittle Star

33 Sponge Brittle Star (CR 281/371)

34 Sponge Brittle Star on zoanthid CR-281/371

35 Ruby Brittle Star CR-283/373 Ruby Brittle Star CR-283/373

36 Giant Basket Star (closed) CR-287/377

37 Giant Basket Star (open) open mostly at night filtering planktonic animals

38 Sea Urchins, Heart Urchins, and Sand Dollars (Echinoidea) without arms without arms Calcareous plates fused into shell (test) Calcareous plates fused into shell (test) Often covered with spines- spines often used for locomotion instead of tube feet Often covered with spines- spines often used for locomotion instead of tube feet Most hide during day and are more active at night Most hide during day and are more active at night sand dollars and heart urchins burrow under sand during day Most feed on detritus or algae

39 Diadema Long Spined Sea Urchin CR-287/379

40 Rock Boring sea Urchin CR-289/380 Aboral View - shorter spines- shallow rocky tidal area

41 Rock Boring Sea Urchin Oral View

42 Diadema Rock Boring

43 West Indian Sea Egg CR-293/385 found in sea grass beds and shallow reefs

44 Variegated Urchin CR-291/383

45 West Indian Sea Egg oral view

46 Red Heart Urchin CR-293/387 hide under sand during day – when discovered, will jump out

47 Six-Keyhole Sand Dollar CR-295/389 covered with short spine fuzz

48 Slate Pencil Sea Urchin CR= 291/385 found on sea grass beds and reef ruble

49 Feather Stars and Sea Lilies (Crinoidea) 600 species 600 species Crinoids Crinoids Most ancient class Most ancient class Mouth open up instead of down Mouth open up instead of down 5 arms radiate from pentagon shaped body- arms branch into 10 or more arms 5 arms radiate from pentagon shaped body- arms branch into 10 or more arms Tube feet used for filter feeding Tube feet used for filter feeding Sea lilies found in deeper water Sea lilies found in deeper water

50 Golden Chrinoid CR-269/355 found on coral reefs

51 Feather Star CR-269/355 here the arms are closed (rolled up) notice the claw-like appendages attaching it to rock

52 Sea Cucumbers (Holothuroidea) Elongated soft body – no spines Elongated soft body – no spines Bilateral symmetry Bilateral symmetry Skeletal plates are very small and buried under leathery body wall Skeletal plates are very small and buried under leathery body wall Some have tentacle-like tube feet around mouth Some have tentacle-like tube feet around mouth Mouth in front and anus at rear Mouth in front and anus at rear Defense mechanisms Defense mechanisms

53 Three Rowed Sea Cucumber (CR-297/392)

54 Florida Sea Cucumber CR-397 found in shallow sand flats and sea grass beds

55 Donkey Dung Sea Cucumber CR-297/395 inhabit sandy areas around reefs and sea grass beds

56 Sea Cucumber Expelling CuiverianThreads Defense Mechanism Actually Part of the animals gut These threads are toxic And can be quickly Regenerated.

57 Pearlfish and Sea Cucumbers have an INTERESTING RELATIONSHIP


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