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© 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical Thinking: Conceptual definition Peter A. Facione Noreen C. Facione Santa Clara U UC San Francisco.

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Presentation on theme: "© 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical Thinking: Conceptual definition Peter A. Facione Noreen C. Facione Santa Clara U UC San Francisco."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical Thinking: Conceptual definition Peter A. Facione Noreen C. Facione Santa Clara U UC San Francisco

2 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical Thinking Purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which manifests itself in reasoned consideration of evidence, context, methods, standards, and conceptualizations in deciding what to believe or what to do. The Delphi Report: Executive Summary: (1990), The California Academic Press, or ERIC Doc ED

3 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Willing and Able to Think Skills Dispositions Two aspects of critical thinking

4 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Core Critical Thinking Skills Interact

5 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Definition of Interpretation zTo categorize zTo decode the significance zTo clarify the meaning zTo categorize zTo decode the significance zTo clarify the meaning Formulate categories, distinctions, or frameworks for understanding, describing or characterizing information. The Delphi Report: Executive Summary: (1990), The California Academic Press, or ERIC Doc ED

6 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. zTo categorize zTo decode the significance zTo clarify the meaning zTo categorize zTo decode the significance zTo clarify the meaning Detect or describe the content, affective purport, directive functions, motives, purposes, social significance, values, views, rules, criteria, or inferential relationships expressed in language, drawings, graphs, social behaviors, symbols, etc Discern the use of irony or rhetorical questions. Definition of Interpretation The Delphi Report: Executive Summary: (1990), The California Academic Press, or ERIC Doc ED

7 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. zTo categorize zTo decode the significance zTo clarify the meaning Definition of Interpretation To paraphrase the contextual or intended meanings of ideas, or make ideas more explicit, through stipulation, description, behaviors, symbols, rules, analogy or figurative expression, etc. To remove vagueness and ambiguity by developing distinctions for preserving conceptual differences and intended meanings. The Delphi Report: Executive Summary: (1990), The California Academic Press, or ERIC Doc ED

8 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. CT Skills Test Scores by Sex Females: n =2,088, mean 15.40, s.d. 4.3 Males: n = 234, mean 15.42, s.d. 4.8 Finding: No significant difference at entry. Females: n = 924, mean 16.10, s.d. 4.3 Males: n = 103, mean 16.07, s.d. 5.3 Finding: No significant difference at exit. Females: n =2,088, mean 15.40, s.d. 4.3 Males: n = 234, mean 15.42, s.d. 4.8 Finding: No significant difference at entry. Females: n = 924, mean 16.10, s.d. 4.3 Males: n = 103, mean 16.07, s.d. 5.3 Finding: No significant difference at exit. Facione,N. (1997). Nursing Aggregate Data Analysis Study

9 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical Thinking Skills by Age zn = 2,340 zmean age = years zage, standard deviation = 8.97 zr = Finding: Correlation of CT skills test scores with age is not significant. zn = 2,340 zmean age = years zage, standard deviation = 8.97 zr = Finding: Correlation of CT skills test scores with age is not significant. Facione,N. (1997). Nursing Aggregate Data Analysis Study

10 Habits and Skills Nurtured and Honed by Use Equally Important Practical Experience Content Knowledge Critical Thinking © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA.

11 The Facione Model of Reasoned Judgment Relevant Knowledge Estimated Risk Affective Responses Perceived Consequences Habits Facilitating Factors Constraining Factors Cultural Norms Personality, Thinking Skills, Creativity, Philosophical Orientation

12 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. CT in Reasoned Judgment zDefinition of the Problem zSelection of the Optimal Resolution zApplicability of each element of ones Philosophical Orientation xquality and nature of evidence xtheory, concepts, and constructs xmethods and techniques of inquiry xrelevance of standards/criteria xcontext of this judgment relative to all else

13 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. What sort of person..? zMakes purposeful self-regulatory judgments by giving zreasoned consideration to evidence context theory / conceptualizations methods standards One driven by the consistent internal motivation to engage ones cognitive skills in problem framing and solving

14 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Characteristics of a Critical Thinker zTruth-seeking zOpen-minded zAnalytical zSystematic zCT- Confident zInquisitive zCognitively Mature

15 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. CT Dispositional Pairings

16 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. How to Nurture Thinking in Working and Learning zExpect and reward virtue zEvaluate processes, not results only zPresent information from the bottom up, explaining why, not just what zReplace rote training with thoughtful mentoring zBuild a culture of reasoned, evidence-based thinking

17 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Professional Judgment: A goal oriented decision-making or problem-solving process carried out by a professional acting in the interests of a client. In the process of making this judgment, the professional takes into consideration the context, criteria, data, concepts, and methods.

18 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. The Contexts of Judgment Novel ………………………………. Familiar Complex………..……….....……… Singular High Stakes………………..….. Low Stakes Time Constrained….…………..… Relaxed Specialized………... Common Knowledge Spontaneous………..………….… Planned Individual…………....…….... Collaborative How well do the teaching and testing contexts match the professional practice contexts?

19 © 1998, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA. Critical thinking - purposeful self-regulatory judgment - can be... zAssessed zLearned zTaught zDefined


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