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PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.

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Presentation on theme: "PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 4 Skin and Body Membranes

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Membranes Function of body membranes Cover body surfaces Line body cavities Form protective sheets around organs

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classification of Body Membranes Epithelial membranes Cutaneous membranes Mucous membranes Serous membranes Connective tissue membranes Synovial membranes

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Membrane Cutaneous membrane = skin Dry membrane Outermost protective boundary Superficial epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Underlying dermis is mostly dense connective tissue

5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cutaneous Membranes Figure 4.1a

6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mucous Membranes Surface epithelium type depends on site Stratified squamous epithelium (mouth, esophagus) Simple columnar epithelium (rest of digestive tract) Underlying loose connective tissue (lamina propria) Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior body surface Often adapted for absorption or secretion

7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Mucous Membranes Figure 4.1b

8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes Surface is a layer of simple squamous epithelium Underlying layer is a thin layer of areolar connective tissue Lines open body cavities that are closed to the exterior of the body Serous membranes occur in pairs separated by serous fluid Visceral layer covers the outside of the organ Parietal layer lines a portion of the wall of ventral body cavity

9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes Figure 4.1d

10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes Specific serous membranes Peritoneum Abdominal cavity Pleura Around the lungs Pericardium Around the heart

11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Serous Membranes Figure 4.1c

12 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue Membrane Synovial membrane Connective tissue only Lines fibrous capsules surrounding joints Secretes a lubricating fluid

13 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Connective Tissue Membrane Figure 4.2

14 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 1. The categories of epithelial tissue membranes are: Mucous, cutaneous, and serous membranes 2.Which type of membrane contains fluid between the visceral and perietal layers: serous

15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 3.Which of the following relationships is incorrect: a.visceral peritoneum - covers the outer surface of the small intestine b.parietal pericardium - covers the outer surface of the heart c.parietal pleura - lines the wall of thoracic cavity d.visceral pleura - lines the surface of the lungs e.parietal peritoneum - lines the wall of the abdominal cavity

16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 3.Which of the following relationships is incorrect: a.visceral peritoneum - covers the outer surface of the small intestine b.parietal pericardium - covers the outer surface of the heart c.parietal pleura - lines the wall of thoracic cavity d.visceral pleura - lines the surface of the lungs e.parietal peritoneum - lines the wall of the abdominal cavity

17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 4.Which of the following is a connective tissue membrane: a.synovial membrane b.cutaneous membrane c.mucous membrane d.serous membrane

18 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 4.Which of the following is a connective tissue membrane: a.synovial membrane b.cutaneous membrane c.mucous membrane d.serous membrane

19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions Body Membranes 5.The only dry membrane is the: cutaneous membrane 6.Synovial membranes are found in the: joint cavities

20 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integumentary System Skin (cutaneous membrane) Skin derivatives Sweat glands Oil glands Hair Nails

21 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Functions Table 4.1 (1 of 2)

22 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Functions Table 4.1 (2 of 2)

23 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Epidermisouter layer Stratified squamous epithelium Often keratinized (hardened by keratin) Dermis Dense connective tissue

24 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Figure 4.3

25 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis) is deep to dermis Not part of the skin Anchors skin to underlying organs Composed mostly of adipose tissue

26 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Epidermis Stratum basale (stratum germinativum) Deepest layer of epidermis Lies next to dermis Cells undergoing mitosis Daughter cells are pushed upward to become the more superficial layers Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum

27 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Epidermis Stratum lucidum Formed from dead cells of the deeper strata Occurs only in thick, hairless skin of the palms of hands and soles of feet Stratum corneum Outermost layer of epidermis Shingle-like dead cells are filled with keratin (protective protein prevents water loss from skin)

28 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Layers of the Epidermis Summary of layers from deepest to most superficial Stratum basale Stratum spinosum Stratum granulosum Stratum lucidum (thick, hairless skin only) Stratum corneum

29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Melanin Pigment (melanin) produced by melanocytes Melanocytes are mostly in the stratum basale Color is yellow to brown to black Amount of melanin produced depends upon genetics and exposure to sunlight

30 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dermis Two layers Papillary layer (upper dermal region) Projections called dermal papillae Some contain capillary loops Other house pain receptors and touch receptors Reticular layer (deepest skin layer) Blood vessels Sweat and oil glands Deep pressure receptors

31 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dermis Overall dermis structure Collagen and elastic fibers located throughout the dermis Collagen fibers give skin its toughness Elastic fibers give skin elasticity Blood vessels play a role in body temperature regulation

32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Structure Figure 4.4

33 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Normal Skin Color Determinants Melanin Yellow, brown, or black pigments Carotene Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables Hemoglobin Red coloring from blood cells in dermal capillaries Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring

34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Appendages Cutaneous glands are all exocrine glands Sebaceous glands Sweat glands Hair Hair follicles Nails

35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 1.Which of the following is a vital function of the skin: a.it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to vitamin D b.it aids in the transport of materials throughout the body c.the cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy d.it absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases e.it aids in desiccation 2.Although you get wet while swimming, a tough protein within the skin prevents it from soaking up moisture like a sponge. This substance is: a.serous fluid b.melanin c.mucus d.carotene e.keratin

36 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 1.Which of the following is a vital function of the skin: a.it converts modified epidermal cholesterol to vitamin D b.it aids in the transport of materials throughout the body c.the cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy d.it absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases e.it aids in desiccation 2.Although you get wet while swimming, a tough protein within the skin prevents it from soaking up moisture like a sponge. This substance is: a.serous fluid b.melanin c.mucus d.carotene e.keratin

37 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 3. The epidermis is composed of: a.simple columnar epithelium b.stratified squamous epithelium c.adipose tissue d.areolar tissue e.dense fibrous connective tissue 4. The uppermost layer of skin is: a.called the dermis b.full of keratin c.fed by a good supply of blood vessels d.called the hypodermis e.composed of dense connective tissue

38 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 3. The epidermis is composed of: a.simple columnar epithelium b.stratified squamous epithelium c.adipose tissue d.areolar tissue e.dense fibrous connective tissue 4. The uppermost layer of skin is: a.called the dermis b.full of keratin c.fed by a good supply of blood vessels d.called the hypodermis e.composed of dense connective tissue

39 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 5.A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order: stratum basale stratum corneum stratum granulosum stratum lucidum stratum spinosum

40 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 5.A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order: 1. stratum corneum 2. stratum granulosum 3. stratum spinosum 4. stratum basale stratum lucidum (not in forearm)

41 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 6.The "tanning" effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to: a.melanin b.keratin c.oil d.Langerhans cells e.sweat 7.Epidermal cells that are actively mitotic and replace superficial cells that are continually rubbed off are: a.stratum granulosum cells b.stratum corneum cells c.stratum lucidum cells d.stratum spinosum cells e.stratum germinativum cells

42 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 6.The "tanning" effect (darkening of the skin) that occurs when a person is exposed to the sun is due to: a.melanin b.keratin c.oil d.Langerhans cells e.sweat 7.Epidermal cells that are actively mitotic and replace superficial cells that are continually rubbed off are: a.stratum granulosum cells b.stratum corneum cells c.stratum lucidum cells d.stratum spinosum cells e.stratum germinativum cells

43 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 8.Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of: a.absorption b.evaporation c.filtration d.diffusion e.osmosis

44 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin review questions 8.Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of: a.absorption b.evaporation c.filtration d.diffusion e.osmosis

45 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 9.Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the papillary layer of the dermis: a.it is the deepest layer of the skin b.it produces the pattern for fingerprints c.it contains nerve endings that respond to touch and temperature stimuli d.it is highly vascular e.it is located immediately beneath the epidermis

46 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 9.Which of the following is NOT a true statement about the papillary layer of the dermis: a.it is the deepest layer of the skin b.it produces the pattern for fingerprints c.it contains nerve endings that respond to touch and temperature stimuli d.it is highly vascular e.it is located immediately beneath the epidermis

47 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Sebaceous glands Produce oil Lubricant for skin Prevents brittle hair Kills bacteria Most have ducts that empty into hair follicles; others open directly onto skin surface Glands are activated at puberty

48 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.6a

49 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Sweat glands Produce sweat Widely distributed in skin Two types Eccrine Open via duct to pore on skin surface Apocrine Ducts empty into hair follicles

50 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.6b

51 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sweat and Its Function Composition Mostly water Salts and vitamin C Some metabolic waste Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only) Function Helps dissipate excess heat Excretes waste products Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth Odor is from associated bacteria

52 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Hair Produced by hair follicle Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

53 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.7c

54 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Hair anatomy Central medulla Cortex surrounds medulla Cuticle on outside of cortex Most heavily keratinized Figure 4.7b

55 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Associated hair structures Hair follicle Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root Arrector pili muscle Smooth muscle Pulls hairs upright when cold or frightened Sebaceous gland Sweat gland

56 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.7a

57 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.8

58 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Nails Scale-like modifications of the epidermis Heavily keratinized Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed Responsible for growth Lack of pigment makes them colorless Pink because of blood supply underneath

59 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Nail structures Free edge Body is the visible attached portion Root of nail embedded in skin Cuticle is the proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body

60 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Appendages of the Skin Figure 4.9

61 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances Infections Athletes foot (tinea pedis) Caused by fungal infection Boils and carbuncles Caused by bacterial infection Cold sores Caused by virus

62 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances Infections and allergies Contact dermatitis Exposures cause allergic reaction Impetigo Caused by bacterial infection Psoriasis Cause is unknown Triggered by trauma, infection, stress

63 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances Figure 4.10

64 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Homeostatic Imbalances Burns Tissue damage and cell death caused by heat, electricity, UV radiation, or chemicals Associated dangers Dehydration Electrolyte imbalance Circulatory shock

65 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rule of Nines Way to determine the extent of burns Body is divided into 11 areas for quick estimation Each area represents about 9% of total body surface area

66 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rule of Nines Figure 4.11a

67 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Severity of Burns First-degree burns Only epidermis is damaged Skin is red and swollen Second-degree burns Epidermis and upper dermis are damaged Skin is red with blisters Third-degree burns Destroys entire skin layer Burn is gray-white or black

68 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Severity of Burns Figure 4.11b

69 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Critical Burns Burns are considered critical if Over 25% of body has second-degree burns Over 10% of the body has third-degree burns There are third-degree burns of the face, hands, or feet

70 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Cancerabnormal cell mass Classified two ways Benign Does not spread (encapsulated) Malignant Metastasized (moves) to other parts of the body Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer

71 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Basal cell carcinoma Least malignant Most common type Arises from stratum basale

72 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Figure 4.12a

73 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Squamous cell carcinoma Metastasizes to lymph nodes if not removed Early removal allows a good chance of cure Believed to be sun-induced Arises from stratum spinosum

74 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Figure 4.12b

75 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Malignant melanoma Most deadly of skin cancers Cancer of melanocytes Metastasizes rapidly to lymph and blood vessels Detection uses ABCD rule

76 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skin Cancer Types Figure 4.12c

77 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ABCD Rule A = Asymmetry Two sides of pigmented mole do not match B = Border irregularity Borders of mole are not smooth C = Color Different colors in pigmented area D = Diameter Spot is larger then 6 mm in diameter

78 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions In order to warm the body up when cold: a.vitamin D is synthesized b.sudoriferous glands release sweat c.sebaceous glands release oil d.the arrector pili muscles contract to stand hairs upright Finger-like upward projections of the dermis into the epidermis are called: a.hair follicles b.hair bulbs c.Meissner's corpuscles d.dermal papillae

79 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review questions In order to warm the body up when cold: a.vitamin D is synthesized b.sudoriferous glands release sweat c.sebaceous glands release oil d.the arrector pili muscles contract to stand hairs upright Finger-like upward projections of the dermis into the epidermis are called: a.hair follicles b.hair bulbs c.Meissner's corpuscles d.dermal papillae

80 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Questions Nails are composed of: a.melanin b.keratin c.carotene The secretions of the eccrine glands are: a.primarily uric acid b.99% water, sodium chloride, and trace amounts of wastes, lactic acid c.fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins

81 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Questions Nails are composed of: a.melanin b.keratin c.carotene The secretions of the eccrine glands are: a.primarily uric acid b.99% water, sodium chloride, and trace amounts of wastes, lactic acid c.fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitamins

82 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review The secretion of sweat is stimulated: a.by high temperatures b.when the air temperature drops c.by hormones, especially male sex hormones d.as a protective coating when one is swimming e.both by high temperatures and by hormones, especially male hormones

83 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review The secretion of sweat is stimulated: a.by high temperatures b.when the air temperature drops c.by hormones, especially male sex hormones d.as a protective coating when one is swimming e.both by high temperatures and by hormones, especially male hormones

84 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands is called: a.impetigo b.alopecia c.psoriasis d.boils e.contact dermatitis What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn: a.infection b.dehydration c.unbearable pain d.loss of immune function e.blood loss

85 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Inflammation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands is called: a.impetigo b.alopecia c.psoriasis d.boils e.contact dermatitis What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn: a.infection b.dehydration c.unbearable pain d.loss of immune function e.blood loss

86 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review A physician estimates the volume of fluid lost in a severely burned patient by: a.measuring urinary output and fluid intake b.observing the tissues that are usually moist c.blood analysis d.using the "rule of nines e.performing enzyme studies

87 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review A physician estimates the volume of fluid lost in a severely burned patient by: a.measuring urinary output and fluid intake b.observing the tissues that are usually moist c.blood analysis d.using the "rule of nines e.performing enzyme studies

88 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Which of the following is an indication of melanoma: a.a symmetrical mole b.a pigmented spot that has smooth borders c.a spot on the skin that is smaller than the size of a pencil eraser d.a pigmented spot that is black e.a pigmented spot that contains areas of different colors

89 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review Which of the following is an indication of melanoma: a.a symmetrical mole b.a pigmented spot that has smooth borders c.a spot on the skin that is smaller than the size of a pencil eraser d.a pigmented spot that is black e.a pigmented spot that contains areas of different colors


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