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The Age of Reason & Enlightenment The Origins of Enlightenment? SCIENTIFIC: SCIENTIFIC: Newtons system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Reason & Enlightenment The Origins of Enlightenment? SCIENTIFIC: SCIENTIFIC: Newtons system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Age of Reason & Enlightenment

3 The Origins of Enlightenment? SCIENTIFIC: SCIENTIFIC: Newtons system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical. Newtons system was synonymous with the empirical and the practical. Scientific laws could be expressed as universal mathematical formulas. Scientific laws could be expressed as universal mathematical formulas. Science allowed alternatives to be imagined in everything from politics to religion. Science allowed alternatives to be imagined in everything from politics to religion.

4 William Blakes Newton, 1795

5 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris

6 Zoology & Biology A dissection at the Royal Academy, London.

7 Chemistry Labs & Botany Gardens

8 Natural History Collections Cocoa plant drawing. Cocoa plant drawing. Sir Hans Sloane ( ). Sir Hans Sloane ( ). Collected from Jamaica. Collected from Jamaica.

9 Natural History Collections James Petivers Beetles (London apothecary)

10 Private Collections The Origins of Modern Museums.

11 The Origins of Enlightenment? RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS: physico-theology – an attempt (inspired by science) to explain Gods Providence by reference to his work in nature & not primarily through his biblical Word. physico-theology – an attempt (inspired by science) to explain Gods Providence by reference to his work in nature & not primarily through his biblical Word. support of a rational religion, free from mysteries, miracles, and superstitions. support of a rational religion, free from mysteries, miracles, and superstitions.

12 The Origins of Enlightenment? RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS: Deism Deism The belief in the existence of a God or supreme being but a denial of revealed religion, basing ones belief on the light of nature and reason. The belief in the existence of a God or supreme being but a denial of revealed religion, basing ones belief on the light of nature and reason. Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man. Deists saw no point in any particular religion; they recognized only a distant God, uninvolved in the daily life of man.

13 The Origins of Enlightenment? RELIGIOUS: RELIGIOUS: Gradually, highly educated Protestants & Catholics thought more about Gods work as revealed through science, rather than through the Scriptures. Gradually, highly educated Protestants & Catholics thought more about Gods work as revealed through science, rather than through the Scriptures. Pantheism Pantheism The belief that God and nature are one and the same. The belief that God and nature are one and the same.

14 Centers of the Enlightenment

15 The Enlightened Individual The Philosophe Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great publicists of the new thinking CHANGE & PROGRESS! Not really original thinkers as a whole, but were great publicists of the new thinking CHANGE & PROGRESS! They were students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms. They were students of society who analyzed its evils and advanced reforms.

16 The Great Debate Reason & Logic Traditions and Superstitions rationalis m rationalis m empiricis m empiricis m tolerance tolerance skepticis m skepticis m Deism Deism nostalgia for the past nostalgia for the past organized religions organized religions irrationalism irrationalism emotionalism emotionalism

17 John Locke ( ) Letter on Toleration, 1689 Letter on Toleration, 1689 Two Treatises of Government, 1690 Two Treatises of Government, 1690 Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 1693 Some Thoughts Concerning Education, 1693 The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695 The Reasonableness of Christianity, 1695

18 John Lockes Philosophy (I) The individual must become a rational creature. The individual must become a rational creature. Virtue can be learned and practiced. Virtue can be learned and practiced. Human beings possess free will. Human beings possess free will. they should be prepared for freedom. they should be prepared for freedom. obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear. obedience should be out of conviction, not out of fear. Legislators owe their power to a contract with the people. Legislators owe their power to a contract with the people. Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained. Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained.

19 John Lockes Philosophy (II) There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings. There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings. life, liberty, property! life, liberty, property! The doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings was nonsense. The doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings was nonsense. He favored a republic as the best form of government. He favored a republic as the best form of government.

20 The American Philosophes John Adams ( ) Ben Franklin ( ) Thomas Jefferson ( ) …...…life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…………...

21 Voltaire ( ) AKA Francois Marie Arouet. AKA Francois Marie Arouet. Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, 1756 Essay on the Customs and Spirit of Nations, 1756 Candide, 1759 Candide, 1759 Philosophical Dictionary, 1764 Philosophical Dictionary, 1764

22 Voltaires Wisdom (I) E Every man is guilty of all the good he didnt do. G God is a comedian playing to an audience too afraid to laugh. I If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him. t is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong. L Love truth and pardon error.

23 Voltaires Wisdom (II) J Judge of a man by his questions rather than by his answers. M Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference. P Prejudice is opinion without judgment. T The way to become boring is to say everything. I I may not agree with what you have to say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.

24 David Hume ( ) The Natural History of Religion [][[(1755]). The Natural History of Religion [][[(1755]). Belief in God rested on superstition and fear rather than on reason. Belief in God rested on superstition and fear rather than on reason.

25 The Baron de Montesquieu ( ) Persian Letters, 1721 Persian Letters, 1721 On the Spirit of Laws, 1758 On the Spirit of Laws, 1758

26 Montesquieus Philosophy Three types of government: Three types of government: Monarchy. Monarchy. Republic. Republic. Despotism. Despotism. A separation of political powers ensured freedom and liberty. A separation of political powers ensured freedom and liberty.

27 Jean Jacques Rousseau ( ) A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, 1750 A Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, 1750 Emile, Emile, The Social Contract, The Social Contract, 1762.

28 Rousseaus Philosophy (III) In The Social Contract: In The Social Contract: The right kind of political order could make people truly moral and free. The right kind of political order could make people truly moral and free. Individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject ones individual interests to theGeneral Will. Individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject ones individual interests to theGeneral Will. Individuals did this by entering into a social contract not with their rulers, but with each other. Individuals did this by entering into a social contract not with their rulers, but with each other. This social contract was derived from human nature, not from history, tradition, or the Bible. This social contract was derived from human nature, not from history, tradition, or the Bible.

29 Popularizing the Enlightenment

30 A Parisian Salon

31 Madame Geoffrins Salon

32 The Salonnieres Madame Geoffrin ( ) Mademoiselle Julie de Lespinasse (1732*-1776) Madame Suzanne Necker ( )

33 Other Female Salons Wealthy Jewish women created nine of the fourteen salons in Berlin. Wealthy Jewish women created nine of the fourteen salons in Berlin. In Warsaw, Princess Zofia Czartoryska gathered around her the reform leaders of Poland-Lithuania. In Warsaw, Princess Zofia Czartoryska gathered around her the reform leaders of Poland-Lithuania. Middle-class women in London used their salons to raise money to publish womens writings. Middle-class women in London used their salons to raise money to publish womens writings.

34 Diderots Encyclopédie

35 Pages from Diderots Encyclopedie

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38 Subscriptions to Diderots Encyclopedie

39 Enlightene d Despotism

40 Frederick the Great of Prussia (r ) – – Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the Soldier King). Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the Soldier King). He saw himself as the First Servant of the State. He saw himself as the First Servant of the State.

41 Catherine the Great (r ) German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst. German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst – – 1796.

42 Reformer? OR Despot?

43 The Partitions of Poland

44 Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c

45 Joseph II of Austria (r ) – – His mother was Maria Theresa. His mother was Maria Theresa.

46 Habsburg Family Crest

47 Joseph II of Austria


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