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The Enlightenment 1600-1800 Mr. Zywicki and Mr. Chmiel MHS WORLD STUDIES.

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Presentation on theme: "The Enlightenment 1600-1800 Mr. Zywicki and Mr. Chmiel MHS WORLD STUDIES."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Enlightenment Mr. Zywicki and Mr. Chmiel MHS WORLD STUDIES

2 Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment In the wake of the Scientific Revolution came the Enlightenment. In the wake of the Scientific Revolution came the Enlightenment. This was an era in which people used reason to try to understand more about human behavior and solve the problems of society This was an era in which people used reason to try to understand more about human behavior and solve the problems of society Reason, liberty, and progress Reason, liberty, and progress

3 Enlightenment – Age of Reason The Enlightenment is also called the “Age of Reason.” The Enlightenment is also called the “Age of Reason.” It began in France and spread to Britain, America, and beyond. It began in France and spread to Britain, America, and beyond. Its motto: “AUDERE SAPERE,” Latin for “DARE TO THINK” Its motto: “AUDERE SAPERE,” Latin for “DARE TO THINK”

4 Europe in the 1600s-1700s “Old fashioned” “Old fashioned” Absolute monarchies Absolute monarchies Dominance of the Christianity Dominance of the Christianity Church supported absolute monarchs (“divine right of kings”) Church supported absolute monarchs (“divine right of kings”) People were supposed to not ask questions, accept things based on faith in God, and not challenge governmental authority. People were supposed to not ask questions, accept things based on faith in God, and not challenge governmental authority.

5 Philosophes A group of French philosophers who wrote about government, law, and society were known as the philosophes. A group of French philosophers who wrote about government, law, and society were known as the philosophes. Baron de Montesquieu believed in employing three branches of government that could balance each other’s powers. Baron de Montesquieu believed in employing three branches of government that could balance each other’s powers. Voltaire fought the slave trade and religious prejudice with his witty writings. Voltaire fought the slave trade and religious prejudice with his witty writings. Denis Diderot collected Enlightenment articles in an Encyclopedia that helped to spread ideas throughout Europe and the Americas. Denis Diderot collected Enlightenment articles in an Encyclopedia that helped to spread ideas throughout Europe and the Americas. Jean-Jacques Rousseau thought people were basically good and should be much freer from governmental controls. Jean-Jacques Rousseau thought people were basically good and should be much freer from governmental controls. Mary Wollstonecraft stood up for their inclusion in the new societies that were being imagined. Mary Wollstonecraft stood up for their inclusion in the new societies that were being imagined.

6 Denis Diderot ► All things must be examined, debated, investigated without exception and without regard for anyone’s feelings. ► We will speak against senseless laws until they are reformed; and, while we wait, we will abide by them.

7 Diderot’s Encyclopédie

8 The Encyclopédie ► Complete cycle of knowledge…………...… change the general way of thinking. ► 28 volumes. ► Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated. ► First published in 1751.

9 Pages from Diderot’s Encyclopedie

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12 Subscriptions to Diderot’s Encyclopedie

13 An Increase in Reading

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15 New Ideas Challenge Society While churches and monarchies tried to stop the flow of Enlightenment ideas through censorship While churches and monarchies tried to stop the flow of Enlightenment ideas through censorship Enlightenment thinkers found new ways of spreading their ideas, such as through novels and salons. Enlightenment thinkers found new ways of spreading their ideas, such as through novels and salons.

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17 Arts and Literature Reflect New Ideas The Enlightenment saw the birth of new styles in art, music, and literature. The Enlightenment saw the birth of new styles in art, music, and literature. Painters embraced the lighter and more informal rococo style; composers, too, moved away from the baroque and into rococo and classical music. Painters embraced the lighter and more informal rococo style; composers, too, moved away from the baroque and into rococo and classical music. This was evidenced in the works of Handel, Haydn, and Mozart. This was evidenced in the works of Handel, Haydn, and Mozart. In literature, the novel was king as audiences devoured long stories about their own times. In literature, the novel was king as audiences devoured long stories about their own times.

18 A Parisian Salon

19 Madame Geoffrin’s Salon

20 The Royal Academy of Sciences, Paris

21 Zoology & Biology A dissection at the Royal Academy, London.

22 Chemistry Labs & Botany Gardens

23 Natural History Collections ► Cocoa plant drawing. ► Sir Hans Sloane ( ). ► Collected from Jamaica.

24 Natural History Collections James Petiver’s Beetles (London apothecary)

25 Private Collections The Origins of Modern Museums.

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28 Voltaire It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong It is dangerous to be right when the government is wrong Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference. Men are equal; it is not birth, but virtue that makes the difference.

29 The Baron de Montesquieu Three types of government: MonarchyRepublicDespotism A separation of political powers ensured freedom and liberty

30 Jean Jacques Rousseau Government must preserve “virtue” and ”liberty.” Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains. The Social Contract

31 English philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both wrote about society and the ideal form of governing it. English philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both wrote about society and the ideal form of governing it. Hobbes thought people needed strict control to rein in their naturally brutish tendencies. Hobbes thought people needed strict control to rein in their naturally brutish tendencies. Locke thought people were moral at heart and were entitled to certain natural rights, which governments were obliged to protect. Locke thought people were moral at heart and were entitled to certain natural rights, which governments were obliged to protect.

32 Thomas Hobbes: 1600’s A.D. Thomas Hobbes: 1600’s A.D. People give up (cede) their own sovereignty (power) to the state --- government then provides peace and order People give up (cede) their own sovereignty (power) to the state --- government then provides peace and order

33 John Locke: John Locke: Government limited by consent of the governed Government limited by consent of the governed Natural Rights: inherent to being a human – life, liberty, pursuit of happiness Natural Rights: inherent to being a human – life, liberty, pursuit of happiness Governments who do not protect citizens’ natural rights can be justly overthrown Governments who do not protect citizens’ natural rights can be justly overthrown American Revolution and French Revolution American Revolution and French Revolution

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35 Enlightened Despots Embrace New Ideas Some absolute rulers of the time adopted limited reforms inspired by Enlightenment ideas. Some absolute rulers of the time adopted limited reforms inspired by Enlightenment ideas. Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great, Franz Joseph of Austria Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great, Franz Joseph of Austria Austria all showed religious tolerance. Austria all showed religious tolerance. Still the monarchs were not willing to share their power. Still the monarchs were not willing to share their power.

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37 New Economic Thinking Economists also applied reason to their study of economics during the Enlightenment. Economists also applied reason to their study of economics during the Enlightenment. Adam Smith and a group of French thinkers called physiocrats urged economies that operated with little government control. Adam Smith and a group of French thinkers called physiocrats urged economies that operated with little government control.

38 Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations, 1776 The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Self Interest Self Interest Invisible Hand Invisible Hand Power of Market Power of Market Wealth of Nations = GDP Wealth of Nations = GDP Destroys mercantilism Destroys mercantilism Laissez Fair Tax policies Laissez Fair Tax policies

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40 Price Level Real GDP o P1P1 AS LR1 Q1Q1 AD 1 AS 1

41 The Enlightenment in America Franklin: Franklin: Friends with Voltaire Friends with Voltaire Lived in Paris and frequented salons Lived in Paris and frequented salons Publisher Publisher Scientist Scientist Lightening Lightening Inventor Inventor Stove Stove Politician Politician Activist Activist Hospitals Hospitals Anti-slavery Anti-slavery

42 The American “Philosophes” John Adams ( ) Ben Franklin ( ) Thomas Jefferson ( ) …...…life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…………...

43 Thomas Paine ( ) ► Common Sense, 1776 ► The Rights of Man, 1791

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