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The Science of Biology Chapter 1. Potatoes and Observations.

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Presentation on theme: "The Science of Biology Chapter 1. Potatoes and Observations."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Science of Biology Chapter 1

2 Potatoes and Observations

3 1-1 What is the goal of Science? Investigate and understand the world around us Explain events in nature Make predictions

4 The Scientific Method Observations State the Problem Conclusion Hypothesis Data Collection and analysis Experiment

5 Experimentation Controlled steps used to test the hypothesis Controlled Experiment-only 1 variable is changed and all others are kept the same. 2 Groups –Control Group: no IV tested; standard for comparing with… –Experimental Group: IV tested

6 Observations *using the senses to gather/collect data Quantitative -observations based on numbers or quantities Ex.Counting/measuring 7 birds, 14 miles, 200 people Qualitative -observations based on description Ex. Color/texture blue neck, large teeth, soft cushion

7 Hypothesis A possible answer to a scientific question Ex. Use hypothesis to discover how infected disease was contracted: -spread by human contact? -spread through insect bites? **All of these are then tested to find the correct explanation.

8 Procedures Procedural Drawings

9 Variables IV = Independent: the one that is tested (only 1); on X axis. AKA Manipulated Variable DV = Dependent: the one that is measured; on Y axis. AKA Responding Variable Controls: those that remain constant/unchanged

10 I.V. is changed by me- D.V. is the result I see!!!!

11 Data Collection and Analysis Displayed in table/graph What does the data tell us?? –What does it mean? –How can I APPLY this information?

12 Conclusion Analyzing data brings you to a final decision/conclusion Evidence found supports or refutes hypothesis will test correct or wrong Validity Future investigations New Qs Improvements Scientific method practice

13 What is a Theory? A well tested explanation that unites many observations (evidence builds up to make hypothesis very well supported) Can be proven wrong when new data arises to challenge it. May be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation.

14 1-3 Studying Life What do all living things have in common? List 5 things that all living things do: martian

15 Prosecutor - Defense -

16 Is a hurricane alive?

17 Are flowers alive?

18 Is a fire alive?

19 Is a dragon fly alive?

20 Is a river alive?

21 Is a crowd alive?

22 What is Life?

23 6 Major Characteristics of Living Things: Grow Genetic Information Reproduce Adapt and respond to their environment Made of Cells Use and make Energy Remember: GGRACE !

24 Growth and Development

25 Universal Genetic Code **Everything living is based on this the molecule of inheritance

26 Asexual Reproduction New organism has a single parent (ex. Budding hydra)

27 Sexual Reproduction 2 cells from different parents unite to produce new organism (ex. Sperm and egg)

28 Adapting and Responding Organisms sense changes in their environment and make responses to them Receptors detect specific forms of energy The form of energy detected by a receptor is a stimulus

29 Living Things are Made of Cells

30 A Cell Collection of living matter enclosed by barrier separating the cell from its surroundings. Smallest units of an organism that can be considered alive. Small size, but highly organized and complex.

31 Nothing Lives Without Energy Energy = Capacity to do work

32 Evolution - as a group all living things change over time

33 Evolution Genetically based change in a line of descent over time Population changes, not individuals

34 Homeostasis Maintenance of stable internal environment within range suitable for cell activities Ex. pancreas maintains level of sugar in blood by secreting hormones

35 Required for Life… Metabolism -chemical reactions an organism uses to build up and break down materials -how cells acquire and use energy to grow and survive (ex. Digestion, making proteins) Homeostasis -keeping the internal conditions of an organism stable (ex. Body temperature, breathing, heart rate) Work together

36 Redis experiment What differences do you notice about the two groups?

37 Spallanzanis Experiment Pasteurs Experiment What do all 3 experiments have in common? What does this tell us about where life comes from?

38 Spontaneous Generation

39 Real-life Connection! Pasteurs experiment Is this process used today? (Hint- look at the scientists name)

40 What are the different levels of organization in Biology? Smallest to Largest

41 Atom Smallest unit that takes up space

42 Molecules - groups of atoms

43 Organelle Membrane-bound internal compartment for specialized reactions Not found in most prokaryotic cells

44 Cells - smallest functional unit of life

45 Tissues

46 Organs

47 Organ Systems

48 Organism - an individual living thing

49 Population - group of organisms of one type (species) living in the same area

50 Community - Populations that live together in a defined area

51 Ecosystem - community and its nonliving surroundings

52 Biosphere - Part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems

53 You and the Levels of Organization You AtomMoleculeCell Tissue BiomePopulation Organ systemsOrgan CommunityEcosystemBiosphere OrganisM

54 Organization of Life Poster

55 1-4 Tools and Procedures

56 Metric System-SI- International System of Units To collect data and perform experiments Decimal system of units scaled on multiples of 10 Measures: length, mass, volume, and temperature


58 Metric Base Units Mass- gram (g) Distance- meter (m) Volume Volume- liter (L)

59 Mnemonic Kelly Had Dans Uncle Drink Chocolate Milk khdudcm King Henry's Daughter Undercooks Delicious Chocolate Muffins

60 Units PrefixSymbol Factor Number Factor Word Kilok1,000Thousand Hectoh100Hundred Decad10Ten B A S E Decid0.1Tenth Centic0.01Hundredth Millim0.001Thousandth

61 Examples 1000 g = 1 kg 1000 m = 1 km 0.01 L = 1 cL 30 mL = ??? L m = ??? mm

62 x1000 mg mm x10x100x1000

63 mL x10x100 x1000

64 Lab Materials per Group Meter stick Metric ruler Test tube Rubber stopper Penny Triple beam balance 50 mL beaker 100 mL graduated cylinder

65 How can a graph help biologists to organize this data?

66 Microscopes- produce magnified images of structures too small for naked eye Light Microscope- produce magnified images by focusing visible light rays. Fig (compound light microscope) Up to 1000 times. Live and dead organisms Electron Microscopes- produce magnified images by focusing beams of electrons. Fig Form images 1000 times smaller than those of light microscope. Only dead organisms. Have no color. Why?

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