31-1 What is the goal of Science? Investigate and understand the world around usExplain events in natureMake predictions
4The Scientific Method Observations State the Problem Conclusion Hypothesis Data Collection and analysisExperiment
5Experimentation Controlled steps used to test the hypothesis Controlled Experiment-only 1 variable is changed and all others are kept the same.2 GroupsControl Group: no IV tested; standard for comparing with…Experimental Group: IV tested
6Observations *using the senses to gather/collect data Quantitative-observations based on numbers or quantitiesEx.Counting/measuring7 birds, 14 miles, 200 peopleQualitative-observations based on descriptionEx. Color/textureblue neck, large teeth, soft cushion
7Hypothesis A possible answer to a scientific question Ex. Use hypothesis to discover how infected disease was contracted:-spread by human contact?-spread through insect bites?**All of these are then tested to find the correct explanation.
9VariablesIV = Independent: the one that is tested (only 1); on X axis. AKA Manipulated VariableDV = Dependent: the one that is measured; on Y axis. AKA Responding VariableControls: those that remain constant/unchanged
10I.V. is changed by me- D.V. is the result I see!!!!
11Data Collection and Analysis Displayed in table/graphWhat does the data tell us??What does it mean?How can I APPLY this information?
12Conclusion Analyzing data brings you to a final decision/conclusion Evidence found supports or refutes hypothesis will test correct or wrongValidityFuture investigations New QsImprovementsScientific method practice
13What is a Theory?A well tested explanation that unites many observations (evidence builds up to make hypothesis very well supported)Can be proven wrong when new data arises to challenge it.May be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation.
14List 5 things that all living things do: 1-3 Studying LifeWhat do all living things have in common?List 5 things that all living things do:martian
30A CellCollection of living matter enclosed by barrier separating the cell from its surroundings.Smallest units of an organism that can be considered alive.Small size, but highly organized and complex.
31Nothing Lives Without Energy Energy = Capacity to do work
32Evolution - as a group all living things change over time
33Evolution Genetically based change in a line of descent over time Population changes, not individuals
34HomeostasisMaintenance of stable internal environment within range suitable for cell activitiesEx. pancreas maintains level of sugar in blood by secreting hormones
35Required for Life… Metabolism -chemical reactions an organism uses to build up and break down materials-how cells acquire and use energy to grow and survive(ex. Digestion, making proteins)Homeostasis-keeping the internal conditions of an organism stable(ex. Body temperature, breathing, heart rate)Work together
36What differences do you notice about the two groups? Redi’s experimentWhat differences do you notice about the two groups?
37Pasteur’s Experiment What do all 3 experiments have in common? What does this tell us about where life comes from?Spallanzani’s Experiment
64Lab Materials per Group Meter stickMetric rulerTest tubeRubber stopperPennyTriple beam balance50 mL beaker100 mL graduated cylinder
65How can a graph help biologists to organize this data?
66Microscopes-produce magnified images of structures too small for naked eye Light Microscope-produce magnified images by focusing visible light rays.Fig (compound light microscope)Up to 1000 times.Live and dead organismsElectron Microscopes- produce magnified images by focusing beams of electrons.Fig. 1-26Form images 1000 times smaller than those of light microscope.Only dead organisms.Have no color. Why?