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The Science of Biology Chapter 1. 1-1 What is the goal of Science? Investigate and understand nature Explain events in nature Use those explanations to.

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Presentation on theme: "The Science of Biology Chapter 1. 1-1 What is the goal of Science? Investigate and understand nature Explain events in nature Use those explanations to."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Science of Biology Chapter 1

2 1-1 What is the goal of Science? Investigate and understand nature Explain events in nature Use those explanations to make useful predictions

3 What is Science? An organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world Body of knowledge that scientists have built up after years of using this process

4 The Scientific Method 1)Stating Problem/Observations 2)Hypothesis 3)Experimentation 4)Data collection and analysis 5)Conclusion a.Answer to problem b.Validity (restate data) c.Prove/Disprove hypothesis d.Errors e.Improvements

5 Observations *using the senses to gather/collect data Quantitative -observations based on numbers or quantities Ex.Counting/measuring 7 birds, 14 miles, 200 people Qualitative -observations based on description Ex. Color/texture blue neck, large teeth, soft cushion

6 Objective vs. Subjective Observations Objective-without a predetermined point of view, unbiased Subjective-with a predetermined point of view, biased (dangerous-Jews inferior to Germans)

7 Hypothesis A possible answer to a scientific question or an explanation for a series of observations. Ex. Use hypothesis to discover how infected disease was contracted: -spread by human contact? -spread through insect bites? -spread through contaminated air/water/food? **All of these are then tested to find the correct explanation.

8 Experimentation Controlled steps used to test the hypothesis Controlled Experiment-only 1 variable is changed and all others are kept unchanged, or controlled.

9 Variables Independent/Manipulated: the one that is deliberately changed/tested (only 1); on X axis. Dependent/Responding: the one that is measured and changes in RESPONSE to the independent variable; on Y axis. Controls: those that remain constant/unchanged

10 Data Collection and Analysis Clear, precise, and objective –Displayed in table/graph Understanding and making sense of observations –What does your data tell you about the experiment?

11 Conclusion Analyzing data brings you to a final decision/conclusion Evidence found supports or refutes hypothesis will test correct or wrong

12 Role of Experiments Procedures used to study a phenomenon under known conditions Allows you to predict what will happen if a hypothesis is not wrong Can never prove a hypothesis 100% correct

13 Experimental Design Control group –A standard for comparison –Identical to experimental group except no independent variable present Experimental group –Independent variable present and being tested

14 CONTROL GROUP The variable being tested is absent EXPERIMENTAL GROUP The variable being tested is present Draw samples from some aspect of nature Compile results Compare and analyze the test results Report on experimental design, test results, and conclusions drawn from results

15 Examples: Maggots come from meat Mice from wheat Beetles from cow dung 1-2 Spontaneous Generation Belief that living things arose from non-living things

16 Their Explanation… **Gods, witchcraft, mythology, devil

17 OBSERVATIONS: Flies land on meat that is left uncovered. Later, maggots appear on the meat. HYPOTHESIS: Flies produce maggots. PROCEDURE Controlled Variables: jars, type of meat, location, temperature, time Independent Variables: gauze covering that keeps flies away from meat Uncovered jarsCovered jars Several days pass Maggots appearNo maggots appear Dependent Variable: whether maggots appear CONCLUSION: Maggots form only when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation of maggots did not occur. Section 1-2 Francesco Redi and Spontaneous Generation

18 What is Redis Conclusion? Spontaneous generation does not occur.

19 The Return of Spontaneous Generation Anton van Leeuwenhoek – uses a microscope to find tiny organisms swimming in pond water. animalcules John Needham (mid 1700s) performs an experiment that refutes Redi Lazzaro Spallanzani – improves Needhams experiment

20 Gravy is boiled.Flask is open. Gravy is teeming with microorganisms. Gravy is boiled. Flask is sealed. Gravy is free of microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-10 Spallanzanis Experiment What are the controlled variables? What are the independent variables? What are the dependent variables?

21 Controlled variables: Gravy, flask, heat Independent variables: sealed flask Dependent variables: presence/absence of microorganisms

22 The debate continues Louis Pasteur –1864, his experiment finally disproved spontaneous generation In the 1800s some believe the air contained a life force perpetuating the belief of spontaneous generation.

23 Broth is boiled.Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Section 1-2 Figure 1-11 Pasteurs Experiment

24 Broth is boiled.Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Figure 1-11 Pasteurs Experiment

25 Broth is boiled.Broth is free of microorganisms for a year. Curved neck is removed. Broth is teeming with microorganisms. Figure 1-11 Pasteurs Experiment

26 Pasteurs Conclusions All living things must come from other living things. Opening the jar (Redi) exposes the contents to come in contact with organisms in the air, just as breaking neck of flask (pg.13)What improvement did Pasteur make to Redis experiment?

27 What is a Theory? A well tested explanation that unites many observations (evidence builds up to make hypothesis very well supported) Can be proven wrong when new data arises to refute it. May be revised or replaced by a more useful explanation.

28 1-3 Studying Life What do all living things have in common? List 5 things that all living things do:

29 Is a hurricane alive?

30 Are flowers alive?

31 Is a fire alive?

32 Is a dragon fly alive?

33 Is a river alive?

34 Is a crowd alive?

35 Characteristics of Living Things: Made of units called cells Reproduce Based on universal genetic code Grow and develop Obtain/use materials and energy Respond to environment Maintain stable internal environment Change over time

36 Living Things are Made of Cells

37 A Cell Collection of living matter enclosed by barrier separating the cell from its surroundings. Smallest units of an organism that can be considered alive. Small size, but highly organized and complex.

38 Asexual Reproduction New organism has a single parent (ex. Budding hydra)

39 Sexual Reproduction 2 cells from different parents unite to produce new organism (ex. Sperm and egg)

40 Universal Genetic Code **Everything living is based on this the molecule of inheritance

41 Growth and Development

42 Required for Life… Metabolism -chemical reactions an organism uses to build up and break down materials -how cells acquire and use energy to grow and survive (ex. Digestion, making proteins) Homeostasis -keeping the internal conditions of an organism stable (ex. Body temperature, breathing, heart rate)

43 Nothing Lives Without Energy Energy = Capacity to do work

44 Homeostasis Maintenance of internal environment within range suitable for cell activities Ex. pancreas maintains level of sugar in blood by secreting hormones

45 Sensing and Responding Organisms sense changes in their environment and make responses to them Receptors detect specific forms of energy The form of energy detected by a receptor is a stimulus

46 Evolution - as a group all living things change over time

47 Evolution Genetically based change in a line of descent over time Population changes, not individuals

48 Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems Community and its nonliving surroundings Populations that live together in a defined area Group of organisms of one type that live in the same area Biosphere Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream, rocks, air Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass Bison herd Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization

49 Organism Groups of Cells Molecules Individual living thing Tissues, organs, and organ systems Smallest functional unit of life Groups of atoms; smallest unit of most chemical compounds Bison Nervous tissue Nervous system Brain Nerve cell Water DNA Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization continued

50 What are the different levels of organization in Biology? Smallest to Largest

51 Atom Smallest unit of an a element that retains the properties of that element

52 Molecules - groups of atoms

53 Organelle Membrane-bound internal compartment for specialized reactions Not found in most prokaryotic cells

54 Cells - smallest functional unit of life

55 Tissues

56 Organs

57 Organ Systems

58 Organism - an individual living thing

59 Population - group of organisms of one type (species) living in the same area

60 Community - Populations that live together in a defined area

61 Ecosystem - community and its nonliving surroundings

62 Biosphere - Part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems

63 1-4 Tools and Procedures

64 Metric System-SI- International System of Units To collect data and perform experiments Decimal system of units scaled on multiples of 10 Measures: length, mass, volume, and temperature

65 How can a graph help biologists to organize this data?

66 Microscopes- produce magnified images of structures too small for naked eye Light Microscope- produce magnified images by focusing visible light rays. Up to 1000 times. Live and dead organisms Fig (compound light microscope) Electron Microscopes- produce magnified images by focusing beams of electrons. Form images 1000 times more detailed than light microscope. Fig Only dead organisms. Have no color. Why?


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