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The Progressive Era: 1900-1912.

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Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era: 1900-1912."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Progressive Era:

2 PROGRESSIVISM Suffragettes Civi l Rights Muckrackers Temperance Labor
Unions Popul ists M i d c l a s s W o m e n 2

3 Where does Progressivism fit?
Christian Evangelical Movement 2nd Great Awakening Social Gospel 1920s Revivalism 1950s Revivalism CONSERVATIVE REVOLUTION CIVI L WAR Antebellum Reforms [1810s-1850s] Populism [1870s-1890s] Progressivism [1890s-1920] New Deal [1930s-1940s] Great Society & 1960s Social Movements

4 Origins of the Era Progressivism strongest among middle class Protestants William Jennings Bryan Billy Sunday Walter Rauschenbusch Social Gospel “Muckrakers” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

5 The “Muckrakers” Ida Tarbell: “The History of the Standard Oil Company,” 1902 Lincoln Steffens: “Tweed Days in St. Louis,” 1902 and “The Shame of the Cities” Upton Sinclair and “The Jungle”, 1906 Jacob Riis and “How the Other Half Lives,”,1890 Muckraking reflected Expanded newspaper circulation Increased interest in “realism” McClure’s, Cosmopolitan, Collier’s

6 See Progressivism Photographs

7 Circulation of Newspapers and Magazines

8 Municipal Reform Progressives wanted public ownership of private monopolies providing city services City Commission and City manager government

9 State Reform State governors led charge
New York: Charles Evans Hughes battled fraudulent insurance companies California: Hiram Johnson fought against the economic and political power of the Southern Pacific Railroad Wisconsin: “Fighting” Robert La Follette “Wisconsin Idea” Direct primary Tax reform Regulation of railroads

10 Voter Participation Australian, or secret, ballot Direct primaries
Direct election of U.S. Senators (17th Amendment) Initiative: voters could compel the legislature the consider a bill Referendum: allowed citizens to vote on proposed laws on ballots Recall: enabled removal of corrupt and unsatisfactory politicians

11 Women’s Suffrage National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Carrie Chapman Catt Western states 1st to grant women right to vote Women’s gentler nature to tame wild male electorate Progressive women suffragists little troubled by racial discrimination National Women's Party Alice Paul Nineteenth Amendment (1920)

12 A Renewed Campaign for Civil Rights
New generation of African American activists called for racial equality Booker T. Washington “Accommodation“ W.E.B. DuBois

13 From the Niagara Movement to the NAACP
W.E.B. Du Bois Niagara Movement National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Beginning of modern Civil Rights Movement The Crisis Legal Redress Committee National Urban League (1911)

14 Socialism and Progressivism
Socialism government operation of economic institutions keeps wealthy elite from controlling society Socialist Party of America Eugene V. Debs Diversity of Socialists Immigrants Native-born farmers and miners in the west IWW most radical Socialist group Progressives and Socialists both assume the state can solve economic abuses Progressives frightened by Socialist talk of revolution

15 The Roosevelt Presidency
V-P under McKinley

16 “Trust-Busting” Trust-busting Northern Securities Company
J.P. Morgan “New Nationalism”

17 Toward a “Square Deal” Anthracite Coal Strike (1902) Election of 1904
United Mine Workers (UMW) Arbitration Election of 1904 "Square Deal" Roosevelt aligns Republican Party with reform

18 Expanding Government Power: The Economy
Interstate Commerce Commission Hepburn Act (1906) Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Meat Inspection Act (1906)

19 Expanding Government Power: The Environment
Conservation Preservationists: John Muir and the Sierra Club Roosevelt: wilderness is a place to test oneself against natural elements Conservationists Public Lands Commission (1903) Gifford Pinchot National Forest Service Roosevelt vs. Old Guard Republicans on government land reserves

20 The Taft Presidency Roosevelt thought Taft an ideal successor Taft
Not adept at politics More conservative than Roosevelt Election of 1908 William Howard Taft William Jennings Bryan

21 The Ballinger-Pinchot Controversy
Richard Ballinger Gifford Pinchot Ballinger questionably sold Alaskan coal deposits Taft sides with Ballinger, Roosevelt sides with Pinchot

22 Roosevelt’s Return Roosevelt returns to politics
"New Nationalism“ campaign, 1910 Strong federal government: Stabilize the economy Protect the weak Restore social harmony 1910 election results show plan is popular Roosevelt challenges Taft for Republican nomination Denied nomination by Old Guard Republicans

23 The Election of 1912

24 The Republican Party & President William H. Taft

25 Republican Party Platform
High import tariffs Put limitations on female and child labor Workman’s Compensation Laws Against initiative, referendum, and recall Against “bad” trusts Creation of a Federal Trade Commission Stay on the gold standard Conservation of natural resources because they are finite

26 The Progressive Party & Former President Theodore Roosevelt

27 Progressive Party Platform: “New Nationalism”
Women’s suffrage Graduated income tax Inheritance tax for the rich Lower tariffs Limits on campaign spending Currency reform Minimum wage laws Social insurance Abolition of child labor Workmen’s compensation

28 Wilsonian Progressivism: “New Freedom”

29 Woodrow Wilson and the Democrats
Government control of the monopolies  trusts in general were bad  eliminate them!! Clayton Antitrust Act Federal Trade Commission Tariff reduction One-term President Direct election of Senators Create a Department of Labor Strengthen the Sherman Anti-Trust Act Did NOT support women’s suffrage Opposed to a central bank Banking Reform: Federal Reserve Act (1913) Federal Farm Loan Act Child Labor Act

30 1912 Results

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