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The Gunpowder Empires 1450-1750 Muslim Empires The Gunpowder Empires 1450-1750.

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Presentation on theme: "The Gunpowder Empires 1450-1750 Muslim Empires The Gunpowder Empires 1450-1750."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gunpowder Empires 1450-1750
Muslim Empires The Gunpowder Empires


3 Three Dynasties New dynastic empires: Why had Muslim unity dissolved?
Mongol invasion of the 13th and 14th century New dynastic empires: Ottomans – peaked in the 17th century’ Safavids – Persia and Afghanistan Mughals (Mogul) - India

4 The Ottoman Empire

5 The Fall of Constantinople, 1453

6 Mehmed II’s Topkapi Palace, Istanbul

7 Ottoman Dominance Turkic people who took over after the Mongols defeated the Seljuks 1453 captured Constantinople – Sultan Mehmed II Extended to include Middle East (Selim I) North Africa, southeastern Europe (Suleiman) Invaded Vienna in the 16th and 17th century / also conflicts with Venice Vast navy superiority in Mediterranean

8 Ottomans: military Early warrior aristocracy = Turkic Horseman (eg: feudal nobility/askeri) Warrior class built up power by seizing land conscripted youth from conquered lands - janissaries janissaries expanded under Sultan Selim I Greatest expansion/height under Sultan Suleiman “the Lawmaker”

9 Devshirme -Recruitment of the Children

10 Sultans and Court Absolute Monarchs who focused on maintaining justice (adala) Large bureaucracies were formed that involved every ruler and son There were vague principles of imperial succession which led to strife new sultan would often execute brothers – later imprisonment

11 Ottoman Government Sultan – Absolute Power – Caliph – Islamic Orthodoxy ’adala - justice Kanuna – body of law; Shari’a + Diwan – “couch”; Close advisory council to Sultan; vizier- chief minister Ulama Courts – Religious Courts Firman: Public declarations of laws and taxes Theoretically: Sultan was to protect the people from the corrupt tax collectors, government officals, local officials, courts – so needed absolute authority Courted public opinion with propaganda; spies at Friday prayers to get sense of public opinion

12 Important Sultans Mehmed II – conq. Constantinople Selim I – conq. Syria & Egypt Suleiman Kanuni/ the Magnificient – huge gain in Europe <Selim II / the drunkard> Kara Mustafa – attempted conquest of Austria again ---lost

13 Flowering Culture Constantinople became the capital of empire as Istanbul Hagia Sophia turned into a mosque – model for other Turkish mosques Artisan classes were very important Turkish language legacy by the late 17th century Artistic legacy in poetry, ceramics, carpet, and architecture

14 Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul

15 Ottoman Weaknesses Too extensive; but slow…..decline
New territory became less available which slowed growth Corrupt bureaucracy and regional officials used money for personal gain Oppressed peasants led revolts and/or left land Civil strife increased and military efficiency deteriorated Conflicts with Venice/ Portuguese/Spain

16 Ottoman Decline Spanish-Venetian naval victory in 1571
Muslims lost control of eastern Africa to Portuguese Commercial decline was aggravated by inflation caused by New World bullion led to commercial decline Religious leaders blocked western inspired innovation Weaker, lazier less attentive Sultans

17 1663 – invasion of Vienna – eventually thwarted
--Parthenon blown up by the Venetians 1699 – Peace of Karlowitz – Austria took Hungary & Transylvania Wars with Russia continual

18 Ottoman & Safavid Empires, c. 1683


20 Safavids Muslims in Azerbaijan region (probably Azeri) fought to purify and spread Islam to Turkic peoples – started out as a religious order Warrior groups called: quizilbash

21 Safavid dynasty THE GUNPOWDER AGE
1501 – Ismail seized Tabriz and was proclaimed Shah Was defeated at Chaldiran in 1514 by the Ottomans – THE GUNPOWDER AGE

22 State and Religion Shah Ismail – instituted forced conversion to Shi’ite Islam Shi’ite religious establishment in each city Actively anti-Sunni Shahs descent from imams Tension between Shi’a ulama (esp. ayatollahs) and govt Shia mullah’s/ulama didn’t really think the Safavid rulers were of the true line of Ali – ultimately undermined the govt

23 Safavid Shah Shah Abbas I شاه عباس بزرگ (1587-1629) –
Empire reached its zenith Persians counterbalanced the role of the Turkic warriors Used capture youth to fill military and bureaucratic positions Incorporated Persian court etiquette Created infrastructure for trade and Islamic culture

24 Society and Gender in Ottoman and Safavid
Dominated by Warrior class/nobility (askeri / quizilbash) Nobility controlled the peasantry “slave” infantry & bureaucracy Artisans worked in Imperial workshops Safavid less market-oriented than Ottoman Women did not enjoy many outlets especially among the elite

25 Elite Affluence & Artistic Splendor
Abbas encouraged trade and commerce Rugs, silk Poetry : Sa’di Isfahan was heaven on earth

26 The Royal Academy of Isfahan


28 Decline of the Safavid Weak succession after Abbas
Internal strife between Turkic and Persian ethnic groups Foreign invasion from Afghani invaders

29 The Mughal Empire

30 Mughals Turkic invaders led by Babur invaded India in 1526 – sought plunder not conquest Stayed when prevented from going north Babur’s forces defeated Hindu confederation in 1527 – He then ruled the Indus and Ganges plains

31 Babur

32 Mughal weakness After Babur died in 1530 he left no central political infrastructure Feudal structure He also left no competent heir Humayn fled to Persia – from Persia launched attacks into India Humayn restored control of the North by 1556

33 Mughal’s Lasting Empire
Humayn’s son Akbar succeeded to the throne Akbar was an outstanding military and administrative talent Policy of reconciliation with Hindu subjects Abolished head taxes Respected Hindus and allowed them in the administration Hindu Nobility stayed if taxes were collected and paid

34 Akbar’s Social Agenda Encouraged intermarriage and Widow remarriage
Discouraged child marriage Prohibited sati Discouraged consumption of alcohol Created special market days for women only

35 Akbar’s Legacy & European Contact
Social reforms failed in the immediate future (including child marriage and sati) After his death no new territory was added Most of the population lived in poverty Developed major commercial and manufacturing Empire in Indian cotton textiles

36 Court Politics & Women Nur Jahan – wife of Jahangir
“The Twentieth Wife” Mumtaz Mahal – wife of Shah Jahan I Ordinary women’s rights decline under Jahangir and Shah Jahan Nur Jahan – gained considerable power at court because Jahangir was addicted to alcohol and opium 20th wife of Jahangir – but became his favorite Power struggle with brother; between sons Retired to perfume making & poetry Mumtaz Mahal (Arjumand Banu Begum) – married prince Khurrum (Shah Jehan); he only had 2 other wives- whom he essentially ignored 14 children (7 died young); Taj Mahal built for her tomb – 22 years to build; body was housed elsewhere until complete Shah Jehan deposed by Aurangeb & put under house arrest

37 Nur Jahan Mumtaz Mahal

38 Mughal Era Achievements
Taj Mahal – Shah Jahan blends Persian and Hindu traditions

39 Mughal Decline Aurangzeb fought many wars in India to reclaim much of the land that had been lost – depleted the treasury created resentment by beginning religious reform to rid Islam of Hindu influences – created internal weakness By early in the 18th century power passed to regional lords away from imperial control – allows for European inroads…


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