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The Extraordinary Properties of Water

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1 The Extraordinary Properties of Water
Warm up When atoms loose or gain electrons and become charged, What are they called? What are positively charged ones called? What are the negatively charged ones called?

2 Water A water molecule (H2O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen. H O 1

3 Water is Polar In each water molecule, the oxygen atom attracts more than its "fair share" of electrons The oxygen end “acts” negative The hydrogen end “acts” positive Causes the water to be POLAR However, Water is neutral (equal number of e- and p+) --- Zero Net Charge

4 Hydrogen Bonds Exist Between Water Molecules
Formed between a highly Electronegative atom of a polar molecule and a Hydrogen One hydrogen bond is weak , but many hydrogen bonds are strong

5 Interaction Between Water Molecules
Negative Oxygen end of one water molecule is attracted to the Positive Hydrogen end of another water molecule to form a HYDROGEN BOND

6 What are the Properties of Water?

7 Properties of Water At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0 °C. The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure). For this reason, an egg will take longer to boil at higher altitudes 1

8 Cohesion Attraction between particles of the same substance ( why water is attracted to itself) Results in Surface tension (a measure of the strength of water’s surface) Produces a surface film on water that allows insects to walk on the surface of water 1

9 Helps insects walk across water
Cohesion … Helps insects walk across water

10 Introduction: Surface tension refers to water’s ability to stick to itself”. Surface tension van be measured and observed by dropping water (drop by drop) onto a penny. The number of water drops that can fit on a penny will surprise you. Use the dropper and count how many drops of plain tap water you can fit on a penny. QUESTION: How does soap affect water’s surface tension? Rewrite the question and then write a hypothesis that answers the question at the top of page 19 in your BIN.

11 Do 5 trials of each and determine their averages
Test your hypothesis by comparing the number of drops of plain tap water to the number of drops of soapy water. Do 5 trials of each and determine their averages Create a data table for your results below your hypothesis on page 19 of your BIN 5. Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Write a paragraph below your data table (using complete sentences) that explains how soap affects the surface tension of water, using your data to help you answer the question. Suggest a reason for your observation (why did it happen). Support or reject your hypothesis. Trial 1 Trial 2 trial3 Trial 4 Trial 5 average Tap water Soapy water

12 Adhesion Attraction between two different substances.
Water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton. Capillary action-water molecules will “tow” each other along when in a thin glass tube. Example: transpiration process which plants and trees remove water from the soil, and paper towels soak up water. 1

13 Adhesion Causes Capillary Action
Which gives water the ability to “climb” structures

14 Adhesion Also Causes Water to …
Attach to a silken spider web Form spheres & hold onto plant leaves

15 Water is Less Dense as a Solid
Ice is less dense as a solid than as a liquid (ice floats) Liquid water has hydrogen bonds that are constantly being broken and reformed. Frozen water forms a crystal-like lattice whereby molecules are set at fixed distances. 1

16 Water is Less Dense as a Solid
Which is ice and which is water? 1

17 Water is Less Dense as a Solid
Ice 1

18 Homeostasis Ability to maintain a steady state despite changing conditions Water is important to this process because: a. Makes a good insulator b. Resists temperature change c. Universal solvent d. Coolant e. Ice protects against temperature extremes (insulates frozen lakes) 4

19 Solution Ionic compounds disperse as ions in water Evenly distributed
SOLUTE Substance that is being dissolved SOLVENT Substance into which the solute dissolves

20 Solution

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