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1 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Occupational Health and Safety in Veterinary Hospitals.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Occupational Health and Safety in Veterinary Hospitals."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 6 Occupational Health and Safety in Veterinary Hospitals

2 2 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Describe the role of OSHA in veterinary practice safety Describe the role of OSHA in veterinary practice safety List the general requirements of the federal laws related to workplace safety List the general requirements of the federal laws related to workplace safety Explain proper methods for lifting objects and animals Explain proper methods for lifting objects and animals List common workplace hazards in a veterinary facility List common workplace hazards in a veterinary facility

3 3 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Describe the requirements and the OSHA right to know law Describe the requirements and the OSHA right to know law Explain the acronym MSDS and describe the components of an MSDS Explain the acronym MSDS and describe the components of an MSDS List the hazards associated with the use of ethylene oxide, formalin, glutaraldehyde, anesthetic gases, and compressed gases List the hazards associated with the use of ethylene oxide, formalin, glutaraldehyde, anesthetic gases, and compressed gases

4 4 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Learning Objectives Define the term zoonotic disease and list common zoonotic diseases encountered in the veterinary practice Define the term zoonotic disease and list common zoonotic diseases encountered in the veterinary practice List methods to minimize the hazards associated with animal handling List methods to minimize the hazards associated with animal handling Describe the proper handling of hazardous and medical wastes Describe the proper handling of hazardous and medical wastes

5 5 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Safety on the Job Can Affect a Veterinary Practice Personal injury Personal injury Hazards Hazards Infectious diseases Infectious diseases Harmful chemicals Harmful chemicals Radiation Radiation Animal-induced Animal-induced

6 6 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. What is OSHA?

7 7 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Why is OSHA Important? Enforces federal laws Enforces federal laws Helps ensure a safe workplace for American workers Helps ensure a safe workplace for American workers Employers have responsibilities Employers have responsibilities Safety program Safety program Safety training Safety training OSHA Form 300A OSHA Form 300A

8 8 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Employer Responsibility

9 9 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Employee Responsibilities Learn and follow safety rules Learn and follow safety rules Read the OSHA poster Read the OSHA poster Comply with applicable standards Comply with applicable standards Wear or use personal protective equipment Wear or use personal protective equipment Report hazardous conditions Report hazardous conditions Report job-related injury or illness Report job-related injury or illness Seek treatment promptly Seek treatment promptly

10 10 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Attire Attire Dress appropriately for job at hand Dress appropriately for job at hand Minimal jewelry, if any Minimal jewelry, if any

11 11 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Lifting Lifting

12 12 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Clutter Clutter Lack of cleanliness Lack of cleanliness

13 13 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Ineffective organization Ineffective organization Improper storage Improper storage

14 14 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Break times Break times Eating and drinking in designated area Eating and drinking in designated area Away from clinic areas Away from clinic areas

15 15 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Machinery and equipment Machinery and equipment Proper operation Proper operation Proper use Proper use Dangers in using Dangers in using

16 16 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Electricity Electricity

17 17 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Fire and evacuation Fire and evacuation Read and follow directions on your specific extinguisher. Most portable fire extinguishers work according to the PASS directions. P: Pull the pin (some extinguishers require some motion such as releasing a lock latch). A: Aim low (point extinguisher horn or hose at base of fire). S: Squeeze the handle (this releases extinguishing agent). S: Sweep from side to side at base of fire until it appears to be out. Watch fire area, and repeat use of extinguisher if needed. Remember the word PASS Remember the word PASS

18 18 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Violence Violence Barriers Barriers Personal safety includes the diligent use of locks and barriers to deter unauthorized persons from entering the facility.

19 19 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. General Workplace Hazard Hazardous chemicals Hazardous chemicals Most common chemicals used Most common chemicals used Cleaning and disinfecting agents Cleaning and disinfecting agents Insecticides and pesticides Insecticides and pesticides Drugs and medications Drugs and medications Sterilization agents Sterilization agents Radiology processing fluids Radiology processing fluids Right to Know law Right to Know law

20 20 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Secondary Container Warning Label Figure shows an example of a secondary container hazard working label.

21 21 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Material Safety Data Sheet An MSDS contains safety information that may not be indicated on the product label.

22 22 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Precautions in Working with Hazardous Chemicals Storage Storage Mixing and diluting Mixing and diluting Spill clean-up Spill clean-up When making solutions from a concentrate, always start with the correct amount of water and then add the concentrate.

23 23 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chemical Spill Clean-up Step 1: Keep people and pets away Step 1: Keep people and pets away Step 2: Increase ventilation Step 2: Increase ventilation Step 3: Put on protective gloves, apron, and protective eyewear if indicated Step 3: Put on protective gloves, apron, and protective eyewear if indicated Step 4: Cover spill with absorbent materials Step 4: Cover spill with absorbent materials Step 5: Sweep saturated absorbent materials into dustpan and deposit in plastic trash bag Step 5: Sweep saturated absorbent materials into dustpan and deposit in plastic trash bag

24 24 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chemical Spill Clean-up These are steps to clean up a dangerous chemical spill. Step 1: Unnecessary people and pets could spread the spilled material. Step 2: Increase ventilation by opening a window or turning on an exhaust fan; dont use electric equipment and avoid turning on or off electric switches when cleaning up spilled flammable materials. Step 3: Wear protective clothing if it is likely that your clothing will become contaminated during clean-up. Step 4: Absorbent materials include paper towels or cat litter; they allow absorbent material to fully collect the liquid.

25 25 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chemical Spill Clean-up Step 6: Seal trash bag, and dispose of it Step 6: Seal trash bag, and dispose of it Step 7: Wash contaminated area thoroughly and allow area to air-dry. Step 7: Wash contaminated area thoroughly and allow area to air-dry. Wash with plain water or a detergent (not a disinfectant) if permissible by instructions in the MSDS. Step 8: Remove protective equipment, and dispose of single-use items Step 8: Remove protective equipment, and dispose of single-use items Step 9: Wash hands thoroughly and change contaminated clothing Step 9: Wash hands thoroughly and change contaminated clothing Step 10: Replace used materials in spill kit Step 10: Replace used materials in spill kit

26 26 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Ethylene Oxide Ethylene oxide (ETO) Ethylene oxide (ETO) Gas sterilization Gas sterilization ETO is thought to be a human carcinogen, so special precautions must be maintained. Glutaraldehyde Glutaraldehyde Cold sterilization Cold sterilization

27 27 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Formalin Used for tissue preservation Used for tissue preservation When possible, use only biopsy jars filled with formalin to prevent excessive exposure. Human carcinogen Human carcinogen Formalin is probably human carcinogen, so use special precautions.

28 28 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Glutaraldehyde Cold sterilization methods Cold sterilization methods Disinfectants are designed to kill living organisms, so they must be handled safely.

29 29 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Animal-Related Hazards Handling patients Handling patients Restraint devices Restraint devices Bathing, dipping, and spraying areas Bathing, dipping, and spraying areas Personal protection equipment Personal protection equipment Ventilation Ventilation Eye-wash station Eye-wash station

30 30 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Animal-Related Hazard Noise Noise Ear protection Ear protection Hearing protectors should always be used in noisy kennels.

31 31 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Zoonotic Diseases Common pathogens Common pathogens Viruses Viruses Rabies is a serious viral disease. Bacteria Bacteria Bacterial pathogens include Borrelia burgdorferi (cause Lyme disease) as well as Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Pasteurella, and Pseudomonas species. Fungi Fungi Ringworm is caused by a fungus of the Microsporum species. Internal parasites Internal parasites Roundworms and hookworms are internal parasites. External parasites External parasites An example of an external parasite is the irritating and itchy mite that causes sarcoptic mange. Protozoans Protozoans Toxoplasmosis is an infestation by a protozoan. Other zoonotic protozoans are Giardia and Coccidia.

32 32 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Non-Zoonotic Diseases Not serious concern to human health Not serious concern to human health Highly contagious Highly contagious Examples Examples Parvoviral enteritis in dogs Parvoviral enteritis in dogs Panleukemia in cats Panleukemia in cats Personal protection equipment Personal protection equipment Protective measures Protective measures

33 33 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Precautions for Dentistry Operations Aerosolized microbes Aerosolized microbes Personal protection equipment Personal protection equipment Microbes may become aerosolized by use of a high-speed and ultrasonic scaler. Always wear eye protection, a mask, and gloves when performing dental prophylaxis procedures.

34 34 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Radiology Concerns Individual dosimeter badge Individual dosimeter badge Personal protection equipment Personal protection equipment Collimation Collimation Processing chemicals Processing chemicals Never place your hand or any part of your body in the primary beam when taking radiographs!

35 35 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Anesthesia Concerns Proper scavenging system Proper scavenging system Check anesthesia machine before each use Check anesthesia machine before each use Workers are at risk of exposure to waste gases not metabolized by patient. Proper scavenging system is the single most effective means of reducing exposure to waste anesthetic gases. Check your anesthesia machine for leaks before each use.

36 36 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Anesthesia Machine Checklist Step 1: Assemble all hoses, canisters, valves, or tubes according to the manufacturers instructions. Step 2: Turn on the oxygen supply to the machine. Figure shows Step 3: Close the pressure relief (pop-off) valve.

37 37 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Anesthesia Machine Checklist Step 4: Use your thumb or palm to form a tight seal on the Y piece (the part of the hose that attaches to the patients endotracheal tube).

38 38 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Anesthesia Machine Checklist Step 5: Turn on the oxygen until bag is slightly over-inflated (or when the pressure on the manometer reaches the 20 mark), then close the valve.

39 39 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Anesthesia Machine Checklist Step 6: Observe the pressure in the system on the manometer and watch close for any decrease. If your machine is not equipped with a manometer, observe the size of the bag closely. If the pressure remains constant, the machine is leak-free. If the pressure drops, there is a leak (or leaks) in the system. The faster the pressure drops, the larger the leak(s). If there is a leak, check and tighten all connections, and replace any damaged parts (machine may need to be serviced by qualified technician before use). When machine is leak-free, reset pressure relief valve to proper position to use the machine normally.

40 40 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Further Anesthesia Concerns Filling the vaporizer Filling the vaporizer Masking the patient Masking the patient Delaying extubation Delaying extubation Pregnant personnel Pregnant personnel As much as possible, delay extubation and allow patient to recover while still connected to anesthesia machine (oxygen only) and scavenging system. Monitor recovering anesthesia patients at arms length to minimize exposure to gases emitted during respiration.

41 41 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Working with Compressed Gasses Storing tanks Storing tanks Moving tanks Moving tanks Small compressed-gas cylinders must be secured to prevent them from falling over.

42 42 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. One-Handed Needle Recapping Do not attempt to recap the needle after use unless physical danger from sticks or lacerations cannot be avoided by any other means. When necessary to recap, follow one-handed method. Step 1: Place cap on flat surface, such as countertop or floor. Step 2: Using only one hand, hold syringe in fingertips with needle pointing away from your body.

43 43 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. One-Handed Needle Recapping Step 3: Place fingertips on flat surface so that needle and syringe are parallel to and in line with the cap. Step 4: Move hand forward until needle is inside cap.

44 44 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. One-Handed Needle Recapping Final step: Use other hand to seat cap firmly.

45 45 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Non-Hazardous Medical Waste Sharps Sharps Medical devices Medical devices Animal blood or tissues Animal blood or tissues Laboratory cultures Laboratory cultures Bandages/sponges Bandages/sponges Primate material Primate material Animal waste Animal waste Refer to Table 6-1 Typical Medical Waste Definitions (page 137) for definitions as to what constitutes medical waste or normal trash.

46 46 Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Hazardous Drugs All medicines are chemicals All medicines are chemicals Cytotoxic drugs Cytotoxic drugs Handling drugs Handling drugs Biological safety cabinet Biological safety cabinet Handling patients body Handling patients body Handling patients wastes Handling patients wastes All medicines are chemicals; and chemicals can be dangerous. A biological safety cabinet (BSC) is required when preparing cytotoxic drugs. Discuss Case Presentation 6-3 (page 138).


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