Presentation on theme: "Advanced Technical Writing"— Presentation transcript:
1 Advanced Technical Writing Lecture 3Abstract WritingIslamic University
2 AbstractsAbstract summarized and highlight the major points of a longer piece of writing.Abstract are written for many formal reports, journal articles, and most dissertations.Islamic University
3 Abstract primary purpose To enable readers to decide whether to read the work in full.They enable researches to review a great deal of literature in a short time.
4 Abstract for reports and articles Abstract must accurately but concisely describe the original work so that researchers in the field will not miss valuable information.Abstract should contain no information not discussed in the original.
5 When are abstracts used? Ordinarily part of a research article in a journalFor chapters in a book, especially if each chapter has a different authorLibrary reference tools, such as Biological AbstractsFor presentations at scientific meetings (often the "published abstract" is the only written record of such a presentation)Dissertations, some papers in the sciences and social sciences require abstracts
6 AbstractsAn abstract is a short informative or descriptive summary of a longer report.It is written after the report is completed, although it is intended to be read first.In a technical report, the abstract appears on a separate page after the table of contents and list of illustrations
8 Descriptive AbstractTell readers what information the report, article, or paper containsInclude the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paperDo not provide results, conclusions, or recommendations.Are always very short, usually under 100 words.Introduce the subject to readers, who must then read the report, article, or paper to find out the author's results, conclusions, or recommendationsIslamic University
9 Example Of Descriptive Abstract Purpose This report describes the practices and selected foreign countries for scope providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. The report discusses the extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise. The implications of foreign practices for U.S. consideration are discussed, with particular reference to the shift
10 Continue Exampletechnical advisor position and to a proposed shift engineer position. The Methods relevant information for this study came used from the open literature, interviews with utility staff and officials, and governmental and nuclear utility reports.
11 Informative Abstracts Communicate specific information from the report, article, or paper.Include the purpose, methods, and scope of the report, article, or paper.Provide the report, article, or paper's results, conclusions, and recommendations.Are short -- from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon the length of the original work being abstracted. Usually informative abstracts are 10% or less of the length of the original piece.Allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report, article, or paper.
12 Example of Informative Abstract Purpose This report describes the practices and selected foreign countries for scope providing engineering expertise on shift in nuclear power plants. The report discusses the extent to which engineering expertise is made available and the alternative models of providing such expertise. The implications of foreign practices for U.S. consideration are discussed, with particular reference to t he shifttechnical advisor position and to a
13 Continue Exampleproposed shift engineer position. The Methods relevant information for this study came used from the open literature, interviews with utility staff and officials, and governmental and nuclear utility reports.The countries used two approaches toFinding provide engineering expertise on shift:(1) employing a graduate engineer in a line management operations position and (2) creating a specific engineering position to provide expertise to the operations staff. The comparison of these two models did not
14 Continue ExampleGeneral indicate that one system inherently functions Conclusion more effectively than does the other for safe operations. However, the alternative models are likely to affect crew relationships and performance; labor supply, recruitment, and retention and system implementation. Of Recomme- the two systems, the nonsupervisory dation engineering position seems more advantageous within the context of current recruitment and career-path practices.
15 Where to find examples of abstracts: The best source of example abstracts is journal articles. Go to the library and look at engineering journals, or look at electronic journals on the web.Read the abstract; read the article. Pick the best ones, the examples where the abstract makes the article easier to read, and figure out how they do it.Not everyone writes good abstracts, even in refereed journals, but the more abstracts you read, the easier it is to spot the good ones.
16 Which Type Should you Write? The answer depends on the organization or publication for which you are writing.Aim at the needs of the principal readers of your document.
17 Length of AbstractsA long abstract defeats the purpose of an abstract. For this reason abstracts usually no longer than 150 to 250 words.Descriptive abstracts may be considerably shorter, of course.
18 Abstract Should Includes The subject of the studyThe scope of the studyThe purpose of the studyThe methods usedThe results obtained (informative abstract only)The Recommendations made, if any (informative abstract only)
19 Abstract Should not Include The background of studyA detailed discussion or explanation of the methods usedAdministrative details about how the study was undertaken, who funded it, who worked on it.Figures, tables, charts, maps, and bibliographic referencesAny information that does not appear in the original.
20 COMMON PROBLEMSToo long. If your abstract is too long, it may be rejected. Abstracts are often too long because people forget to count their wordsToo much detail. Abstracts that are too long often have unnecessary details. The abstract is not the place for detailed explanations of methodology or for details about the context of your research problemToo short. Shorter is not necessarily better. If your word limit is 200 but you only write 95 words, you probably have not written in sufficient detail.Failure to include important information. You need to be careful to cover the points listed above.
21 Are You Ready For Your 2nd Assignment ? Write Abstract for your Formal ReportDue next Tuesday at class timeGood Luck
22 Quiz 1How many Type of abstract are there, name them and what are the different between them ?