2denotation Dictionary definition of a word The word “midnight” means the middle of the night.
3DialectSpeech patterns in a particular region or of a particular group
4dialogueTalk or conversation between two or more people or characters
5elegyMournful poem or lament, usually honoring someone who has died
6epicLong narrative poem that relates the deeds of a hero…hero often goes on a journey
7fableA brief story with a moral; it often has animals acting like humans
8Figurative languageAny language that is not meant to be interpreted in a strict, literal sense
9flashbackInterruption in a story that tells the reader about something that happened at an earlier time
10Folk taleStory that was not originally written down, but was passed on orally from one storyteller to another
11foreshadowingUse of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest a certain action to come
12limerickA comic poem written in five lines, rhymed in a pattern of a a b b a
13metamorphosisIn literature, a fantastic change, mainly in shape or form
14mythA story, often about gods and goddesses, that attempts to give meaning to the world; for example, why the sun crosses the sky; why there are stars; why there are tornadoes; why flowers die
15paraphraseA summary or restatement of a piece of writing, put in other words (not a direct quote)
16Tall TaleA highly improbable, humorous story that stretches facts beyond any hope of belief
17metaphorA literary device that compares two unlike things, saying that one thing IS another…Life is just a bowl of cherries; my father was the sturdy oak tree, and we were saplings; you are a rock
18simileA literary device that compares two unlike things by using “like” or “as” in the comparison.She is as calm as the eye of a hurricaneHe is like the tiger, always on the prowlThe baby’s mind is like a sponge
19personificationA literary device that gives human qualities to non-human thingsThe wind whispered my name.The bear said, “Yum, yum, humans.”The chair gave a sigh of relief when he got up.
20hyperboleA literary device which uses exaggeration to give force or intensity to what we say or write.He almost died of embarrassment.I have walked a thousand miles today.That teacher must be a hundred years old.
21onomatopoeia A literary form in which words sound like their meaning The twig snapped.The bee buzzed.The bacon sizzled.The snake gave a warning hiss.The thunder boomed.
22alliteration The repetition of an initial sound is a group of words The pupil’s purple prose was pompousThis precious stone set in a silver seaHungry hogs hug the trough
23imageryWords or phrases that create pictures or appeal to the reader’s sensesThe soft breeze lifted her hair and the sun dazzled against her skin.The stream gave off coolness and woodsy fragrance as the trees above rustled in the soft breeze.
24Verbal ironyA contrast between what is stated and what is really meantYou’re a real cutie!” she said to the mud-spattered contestant
25Situational IronyWhen a situation turns out to be completely different from what we expectIn “The Ransom of Red Chief,” the parents didn’t want their child back. Normally, parents would do anything to get their child backIn “The Gift of the Magi,” the wife sold her hair in order to buy a watch chain for her husband, while her husband sold his watch in order to buy a decorative comb for his wife’s hair.
26Dramatic IronyWhen the reader or audience knows something that the characters do not knowIn “Diary of Anne Frank,” we know that Anne will die in a concentration camp at the beginning of the play. (The characters do not know.)
27Prose All literature that is not written as poetry Plays Essays SpeechesNovelsParagraphs
28refrainA word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated regularly in a poem or song, usually at the end of each stanza
29stanzaA group of lines forming a unit in a poem or song
30symbolAny person, place, or thing which has meaning in itself but which is made to represent, or stand for something else as well.Dove = peaceHeart = loveFlag = countryStatue of Liberty = freedom
31Rhyme schemeThe pattern of rhyming words at the end of lines of poetry, denoted as repeating letters of the alphabet
32Narrative poem Poetry that tells a story “Midnight Ride of Paul Revere”
34allusion A reference to another written work in a passage. In Tolstoy’s War and Peace, the writer begins a paragraph with the word, “The Lord is my shepherd.” (Psalm 23)Literary allusion, mythical allusion, biblical allusion, historical allusion
35anecdoteA very short story which is told to make a point
36atmosphereGeneral mood or feeling established in a passage
37balladA story-telling poem that uses regular patterns of rhythm and strong rhymes. Most are meant to be sung
38biographyA true account of a person’s life – written by another person
39characterization Methods an author uses to create characters Physical descriptionWhat the character saysWhat the character doesWhat other characters say to or about the characterWhat the character thinks
40Conflict The struggle or problem the main character faces Person vs personPerson vs selfPerson vs naturePerson vs societyPerson vs machine
41connotationAll the emotions and associations that a word or phrase arousesIn “the Raven,” the word “midnight” means more than the hour; it means an atmosphere of fright or death
42MoodThe atmosphere is a feeling that a literary work conveys to readers“The Woman in the Snow” has an ominous and heart wrenching mood
43plotSeries of events in a story or poem that the character goes through in an attempt to resolve the conflictClimaxExpositionResolution
44SettingThe time, place, and general environment of a story or poem
45tone The writer’s attitude toward his subject Ex: the poem “I’m Making a List” is angry yet sad and humorous
46Author’s purpose The reason the author writes To entertain To persuade To informTo describe
47StyleThe author’s manner of writing … just as every person’s thumbprint is unique, so is an author’s styleElements – word choice, sentence length, tone and figurative language
48SuspenseThe feeling of growing tension and excitement“Monkey’s Paw”
49ThemeThe central underlying idea in a story or poem – what the writer notices about lifeNot a moralIn “Lemon Brown,” the theme could be that everyone has a treasure.