DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid The major nucleic acid in organisms Carries genetic information and is responsible for the transmission of traits.
Gene A segment of DNA that codes for a specific trait in an organism.
Allele An alternative form of a gene/trait. Example: Eye color alleles are blue, green, hazel, brown Can be homozygous or heterozygous
Homozygous Allele Organism with identical alleles for a given trait Can be dominant or recessive Example: TT or tt
Phenotype The physical appearance of a trait in an organism Determined but not always indicative of the genetic makeup of the organism Example: tall or short
Genotype The genetic composition of an organism for a given trait Often cannot be determined by looking at an organism Example: Tt or TT, both are tall
Recessive Gene/Allele Variation of a trait that can only be expressed in the absence of a dominant allele Heterozygous individuals are carriers for recessive alleles.
Dominant Gene/Allele Variation of a trait that is expressed over other variations of the same trait Most common forms in natural populations Some traits can be co- dominant or exhibit incomplete dominance
Chromosome Long condensed strand of DNA forming in the nucleus of a cell prior to cell division Form cells that when split, create an exact copy of DNA in the daughter cell
Chromatid Pairs X-shaped structures that serve as the mechanism for the transmission of genetic material during cell division. They are pulled apart in the process of mitosis and meiosis.
Heterozygous Allele Organism with different alleles for a given trait Example: Tt
Gregor Mendel 1863 Austrian monk who conducted the first genetics experiments using pea plants in the mid 1800s. Often considered the founder of genetics and heredity.
What is Heredity? Heredity is best described as the manner in which inheritable characteristics (traits) are passed from parents to offspring.
Heredity A direct outcome of the RANDOM genetic recombination resulting during reproduction –Ensures genetic diversity
Heredity Determines the genetic potential of an animal, but... Heredity and environmental influences determine the overall quality of the animal. Nature versus Nurture
Simple Heredity One gene controls one trait alleles are either dominant or recessive. –Example: height and color in pea plants
Complex Heredity Polygenic Inheritance –One trait is controlled by several genes and possibly environmental factors –Genes may even be located on different chromosomes
Complex Heredity Polygenic Inheritance –This is a slow process requiring many generations to achieve desired results. Example: Height in humans
Complex Heredity Incomplete Dominance –Multiple alleles for a given trait are not expressed over one another, but in combination. Example: RR (Red Flower) x WW (White Flower) = RW (Red and White Striped Flower) X =
Codominance Similar to incomplete dominance, except characteristics of alleles blend instead of remaining distinct –Example: RR (Red Flower) x WW (White Flower) = RW (Pink Flower) X=
Heredity in Agriscience Heredity is a huge factor in successful agricultural selective breeding programs. Heredity is manipulated to create high quality HYBRID offspring.
Heredity in Agriscience Plants and animals are inbred through several generations to isolate a specific trait or traits. –No more than 7 generations are inbred to prevent genetic disorders.
Heredity in Agriscience The final generation of two different lines inbred for different traits are crossed producing offspring with the beneficial traits of both lines. –Resulting offspring possesses hybrid vigor
Heredity in Agriscience Hybrid vigor usually lasts only one generation, as hybrid organisms rarely express traits true to type in offspring. –Alternative forms of the gene resurface in the new cross.
Heredity in Agriscience Punnett Squares, Pedigree Charts, Genetic Mapping and DNA analysis can be used to predict heredity.
What is a Punnett Square? A method utilizing the known genotypes of parent offsprings to predict the expression of a given trait or traits in offspring. –Must know the genotype of parents and the inheritance pattern of the trait.
Using Punnett Squares When using Punnett Squares the Dominant Trait is always represented by an uppercase letter Recessive is lowercase –Example: T=Tall, t=short
Using Punnett Squares A box should be drawn with one space for each allele expressed by both parents. In simple heredity boxes are 2x2.
Using Punnett Squares The alleles for one parent should be placed above each column at the top, with the alleles for the other placed beside each row on one side. TT T t
Using Punnett Squares The alleles of each parent should be distributed across and down the box. TT T t TT Tt
Using Punnett Squares TT-Homozyous Dominant Tt-Heterozygous Genotype Ratio: 3:1:0 Phenotype Ratio: 4:0 TT T t TT Tt
Using Punnett Squares When crossing using complex heredity boxes are 4x4 and two different traits are being crossed.