2Types of QuestionsThere are two types of ER questions, structured and unstructured.On your exam you will be asked to do 1 of eachAll questions are worth 10 marks but the different types are assessed differently
3Strategy Start with a plan List as many RELEVANT points as you can think of under headings (if given)Put your points in a sensible orderWrite into a coherent paragraphCheck your grammar – if it doesn’t make sense you won’t get the mark even if we ‘know what you mean’You will be awarded 1 mark for each acceptable point. Aim for 1.5 points per mark – there will be lots of things that aren’t going to be worth a mark
4StructuredThese questions are divided into sections and marks are awarded to each section.Example: Discuss transport in plants under the following headings:Transport of food (5)Transport of water and dissolved minerals (5)This means that you can get a MAXIMUM of 5 marks per section.You would aim to give 7 or 8 relevant points for each section.These need to be written in sentences to form a paragraph.
5UnstructuredThese questions are more open and you will be awarded just 8 marks for the points you make.Additionally 1 mark will be awarded for relevance.this means you must not include points that don’t answer the questionTo get this mark you need AT LEAST 4 marks from your pointsThe last mark is for coherence – your answer must be in the form of a sensible paragraphExample: Discuss transport in plants (10)
6Tips Make a plan – even if you think you know the answer well 2. Include labelled diagrams wherever possible3. Writing must be as concise as possible. Avoid trying to say the same thing in different ways.4. Include as much detail as you can – this is where the marks come from.
7Discuss transport in plants (10) Try this one!Discuss transport in plants (10)
8Discuss transport in plants (10) Materials in plants can be transported by phloem or xylem.Phloem transports dissolved glucose (food).This food is transported from where it is produced in the leaves all around the plant.Phloem vessels are made of living cells.
9Water and dissolved minerals are transported in the xylem Xylem is made of hollow dead tubes that run from the roots to all parts of the plantWater can only travel in an upward direction through xylemXylem tubes are strengthened by rings of lignin
10From the 2008 paperWrite notes on:(i) the control of lactose metabolism in E. coli; (6)(ii) phenylketonuria in humans. (4)
11Marking Instructions from the SQA site 1. the regulator gene produces/codes for repressor (molecule/substance/protein) NOT gene* 12. lactose is the inducer 13. lactose binds with repressor (molecule/substance/protein) 14. in the presence of lactose operator switches on structural gene 15. in the presence of lactose/so enzyme/B galactosidase madeOR structural gene codes for enzymeNOT wrong enzyme 16. in absence of lactose repressor (molecule/substance/protein) bindsto operator 17. in the absence of lactose/so operator cannot switch on/switchesoff structural gene 18. in the absence of lactose/so/when structural gene switched off enzymenot made 19. (E. coli) conserves resources/energy OR does not waste energyNOT only made when required 1Maximum 6
12* Note – repressor gene – penalise only once (ii)10. phenylalanine is involved in a metabolic pathway 1OR show in diagram of pathway11. each step (in a metabolic pathway) is controlled by an enzyme 112. PKU is caused by mutation (of a gene)/inborn error of metabolism andleads to an altered/absent enzyme 113. phenylalanine builds up/is not broken down/converted to a toxiccompound/phenylpyruvate 114. damage to nervous system development/description, eg brain damage/ 1mental retardation/learning difficultiesMaximum 4Total (10)