Presentation on theme: "Key area 4: Cellular differentiation"— Presentation transcript:
1Key area 4: Cellular differentiation Stem cells and meristems
2Cellular differentiation Multi-cellular organisms are comprised of a large number of cells. These are specialised to carry out specific roles in the body.Differentiation is the process by which unspecialised cells become altered and adapted to form a special function in the body.
4Selective gene expression Every cell in your body has all the genes necessary for constructing the whole organism.Genes can be switched on or switched off when they are required (see Unit 2) otherwise the body would waste energy producing proteins in cells where they are not needed.e.g. insulin produced in pancreas cells only, not in brain or heart cells.
5Differentiation in animals Each human life begins life as a fertilised egg (zygote) and divides to become approximately 37.2 trillion ( )With almost 200 different cell types.
6In the embryonic cells all the genes are switched on, or have the potential to be switched on. As development proceeds, the cells undergo differentiation and become specialised.Once a cell has become specialised it only expresses the genes that code for proteins specific to the role of the cell.
10Embryonic stem cells come from very early embryos (5-14 days after fertilisation) called blastocysts.
11Embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into any type of cell found in the human body
12Tissue (Adult) stem cells Tissue stem cells involved in maintaining and repairing the body.They have a narrower differentiation potential than embryonic stem cells as many of their genes are already switched off.
13Adult stem cells are found at several locations around the body. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to different blood cells.Mesenchymal stem cells give rise to bone, cartilage, adipose tissue.
14Research and therapeutic value of stem cells Watch video on stem cell research Collect the “All about Stem Cells” activity pack. Divide the class into 4 groups (1 set of cards per group). Each group to make a poster answering the “Your task” questions in each set. Poster conference…make a summary of the findings of each groups poster in your jotter.
15Growth and differentiation in plants In multicellular plants growth is restricted to regions called meristems. These are groups of unspecialised plant cells capable of dividing through out the life of the plant.
16Types of meristemApical meristem at the tip of the root and the shoot – adding length to the plant. Lateral meristems allow the stems to thicken.
17Apical meristemFound at the tip of the root and shoot.
182. Lateral meristemInside the plant.Called cambium.Produces new vascular bundles (xylem and phloem) to transport food and water in the stems of perennial plants.Each year it forms it produces an annual ring of xylem. The number of rings indicates the age of the plant.