Presentation on theme: "STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES"— Presentation transcript:
1 STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES A STRUCTURE is the FORMATIONS and ORGANISATIONS that teams usein different activities.For example, a 1:3:1 attack formation in Basketball or a 2:1:2 ZONE DEFENCEA STRATEGY is the management of the TACTICS of the Game –HOW you APPLY the STRUCTURETACTICS are a PRE DETERMINED GAME PLAN which are designed to make the MOST ofYour teams STRENGTHS and EXPLOIT your OPPONENT’S WEAKNESSES.TACTICS can be defined as procedures for applying specific offensive/ defensive plans toMeet match demands.During PRACTICE SESSIONS players should practice set moves in order to be able to meet aVariety of game demands.The ability of players to participate in or execute a STRATEGY or TACTICAL PLAN willDepend on the players TECHNICAL, PHYSICAL and MENTAL qualities.
2 KEY CONCEPT 1 THE STRUCTURES, STRATEGIES AND COMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS THAT ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO ACTIVITIESKey feature STRUCTURE and STRATEGY FUNDAMENTALSWhy use STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES ?So that you canCONTROL SPACEPRESSURISE OPPONENTSCONTROL TEMPO OF PLAYAPPLY PRINCIPLES OF PLAY
3 Control SpaceApplying structures and strategies allows you to CONTROL SPACE.In ATTACK you can CREATE and EXPLOIT SPACEIn DEFENCE you can DENY SPACEYou can MANOEUVRE and OUT – MANOEUVRE OPPONENTS by controlling SPACE
4 Pressurise OpponentsIn ATTACK you can pressurise OPPONENTS by OVERLOADING an AREA of the COURTEg. Creating a 3v2 situation in the right lane.In DEFENCE you can PRESSURISE OPPONENTS and DENY them the SPACE that theywould want to utilise in their attack.
5 Control Tempo of PlayApplying structures and strategies may allow you to control thetempo of playIn ATTACK you may use a FAST BREAK where you want to useSPEED to outmanoeuvre your OPPONENTSIn DEFENCE you may apply a ZONE DEFENCE where you willbe trying to DELAY opponents attack
6 Apply PRINCIPLES OF PLAY Using STRUCTURES and STRATEGIES makes applying PRINCIPLES OF TEAM PLAY(Principles of Play) easier.In ATTACKYou will be able to provide WIDTHYou will be able to provide DEPTHYou will be able to provide MOBILITY and PENETRATIONIn DEFENCEYou will be able to provide WIDTHYou will be able to provide DEPTHYou will be able to provide DELAY
7 Question Why are STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES FUNDAMENTAL to Activities? Eg. What does using STRUCTURES and STRATEGIES enable youTo do in an activity?
8 KEY CONCEPT 2 Identification of strengths and weaknesses in performance in terms of: roles and relationships ; formations ; tactical and design elementsKey feature – In terms of ROLES and RELATIONSHIPS you should be able toRecognise the demands of individual ROLES during performance.Recognise INDIVIDUAL strengths and weaknesses in a STRUCTURE or STRATEGYSelect a relevant STRUCTURE or STRATEGY appropriate for INDIVIDUAL / TEAMPERFORMANCE.In terms of FORMATIONS you should be able to understandThe STRUCTURE of relevant SYSTEMS OF PLAYThe benefits and limitations of various SYSTEMS OF PLAYThe need to CO-OPERATE with and SUPPORT others in team or group situationsThe ABILITY to PRE PLAN STRATEGIES to meet the demands of playIn terms of TACTICS you should understandThe NEED to IDENTIFY and EXPLOIT OPPONENTS WEAKNESSESRecognise the NEED to MAXIMISE STRENGTHS within the chosenSTRUCTURE/STRATEGY
9 ROLES and RELATIONSHIPS In every group or team it is important to know and understand what your individualRESPONSIBILITIES are and how your ROLE RELATES to your TEAM-MATESHere is an example of different players ATTACKING responsibilities in BASKETBALL inTECHNICAL (Skill) termsThese are given in ORDER of importance.Order Guards Forwards Centresdribbling shooting reboundingPassing rebounding shootingShooting passing passingRebounding dribbling dribblingThe same can be done for PHYSICAL qualitiesOrder Guards Forwards CentresSpeed muscular endurance +C.r.e. Power + C.r.e.Muscular endurance power muscular enduranceC.r.e. muscular endurance muscular endurancePower speed speedMental qualities like concentration,managing your emotions, mental rehearsal andcontrolling your level of arousal also need to be taken into consideration when deciding whichRole to adopt when part of a team
10 QuestionDecide which, attacking role in a Basketball team you should adopt(Play).Explain how you arrived at this decision.Take into consideration Technical,Physical and Mental aspects of yourPlay.
11 Position skills Position Skills In addition to the universal skills of Pass, shoot ,dribble and rebound all five offensive playerpositions have somewhat different secondary skills and attributes.The following is a rather simplified description of these five offensive spots:Point GuardShooting GuardSmall ForwardPower ForwardCenter
12 Point guard Point Guard Most systems designate a player to run the offense. Often referred to as the point guard.This player is usually the best ball handler on the squad. He should be able to lead the fast breakthat develops out of any situation, whether it be a steal, a rebound, or a basket by the opponent.If the fast break is not there, he must be able to bring the ball up the floor against pressure defenseand set up the Motion offense.The point guard does not have to be a big scorer, but should be able to shoot well enough toforce defenses to come out and cover him.The point guard should also be an excellent passer. His ability to hit the open player is veryimportant, as is his ability to anticipate the way a play might develop.He should have the ability to get everybody involved in the offense.He should have the ability to penetrate, attract the defense, and finish the play.By finish the play, I mean that he should make sure that the offense gets a good shot,whether it be on a fast break or through penetration and mobility.The point guard should have the Intelligence to read the defenses and adjust the offenseaccordingly.The ideal point guard is an extension of the coach on the court.
13 Shooting guard Shooting Guard The second guard is frequently the bigger of the two guards.He is generally one of the best outside shooters and, ideally, is the second best ball handleron the team. He must be a good receiver, because he will frequently get the first pass to startthe offense. And, therefore, he must also be a good passer in order to keep the offense movingand take advantage of opportunities to get the ball inside to the post players.Like the point guard, the shooting guard should be able to create and finish the play either onthe fast break or by passing off to an open teammate.This player can also help the team by grabbing offensive rebounds,either by following the shot or by sneaking in from the weak side to get good rebounding position.
14 Small forward Small Forward The small forward will probably be bigger than the guards, but perhaps not as quick or as gooda ball handler. But the small forward should possess many of the same skills as the guards.He should be able to handle the ball well as he is sometimes called upon to help the guardsbreak down defenses.The small forward must also pass the ball well.Sometimes this player can be the best passer on the team, because his slight height advantageover the guards opens up more avenues through which to pass the ball.And he should be able to shoot from the outside.Where the small forward differs from the guards is in the area of offensive rebounding.The small forward must be a good offensive rebounder. From the forward position aplayer often has the best shot at an offensive rebound because opponents concentrate onblocking out the power forward and center.
15 Centre Center In many cases, the center will be the heart of the team. Like the power forward the centre should be either your best, or second best, rebounder.Unlike the perimeter players, the center must be able to play with his back to the basketand be a solid inside scoring threat. Therefore, you must work with your center to developthe fundamental moves that will allow him to score consistently from inside 10 feet.Because the centre often shoots in traffic he will frequently draw the most fouls.For that reason, the center should be a good free throw shooter.Shots taken near the basket are the highest percentage shots, so a good part of your offenseshould be designed to get the ball inside to the center.
16 Power forward Power forward The Power forward should be one of the biggest and strongest players on the team andtherefore, one of your dominant rebounders, both offensively and defensively.ThePower forward should be a physical player.Every team needs a physical presence and,because of his size and strength, the powerforward can often provide it.Like the guards and the small forward, the power forward should be able to handle theball well and be a good passer and receiver.This player's size and strength should enable him to get inside and take the ball to the basketeither for an easy shot or to draw a foul.
17 Ideally most teams would like to be able to break out of defence and set up a scoring chance before the opposition can get back into defensive positions. This is called a fast break, but it is not always possible.Every coach therefore, will have an offensive pattern which he or she hopes will lead to an open shotevery time the team has possession.Motion offence: In this type of attack, the players are moving all the time.It involves fast, accurate passing which can break down one-to-one defences.The guard (the best ball handler) will generally be at the centre of this attack.He or she is positioned slightly behind the forwards, who are to the left and right, around the frontof the key.These players are generally good at long range shooting.The two centres - the tallest players - are on either side of the basket.They make good targets and are the best at scoring from close range.Motion offenceA good play in a motion offence is the SCREEN This is when a player occupies some space on the courtand prevents an opponent from following a team-mate. It requires lots of practice and there are anumber of patterns involving screens.Another play is GIVE AND GO. As the name suggests you pass ahead and then move ahead intoA more advantageous position – often CUTTING to the basket.CUTTING is also important to create SPACE. The most common CUT is the V cut where youMove in one direction then QUICKLY CHANGE direction to lose your MARKERPost plays like SPLITTING THE POST also create space and can lead to UNOPPOSEDshots being taken
18 Strengths and weaknesses of Motion Offence You can take your time to build attackEasy to apply team principles – width – depth – mobility - penetrationRetains possession of the ballCan be used to run down the clockCan control tempo of gameYou can pressurise opponents eg. Create 3v2 overloadIn an area of the courtCreate and exploit spaceAdaptable to suit your players skillsWeaknessesSlows down play – gives opponents defence time to recoverRequires good communication and teamworkRequires constant movementRequires patience
19 QuestionChoose an activity. Briefly describe a Structure, Strategy or Composition you have used.Describe your ROLE as you applied this Structure, Strategy or Composition
20 Fast breakIdeally most teams would like to be able to break out of defence and set up a scoring chanceBEFOREThe opposition can get back into defensive positions . This is called a FAST BREAKFAST BREAKS can be created from Steals, Rebounds, Blocked shots or scored BasketsThe main parts of a basic fast break areSecure the ballOutlet passDribble the middleFill the lanesShoot or pass off
21 Basic fast break Diagram description Diagram descriptionDiagram 3 is a drill that involves three players. Player XI rebounds the ball and passes to player X2 who has moved to receive an outlet pass. Player X2 dribbles the middle and passes to player X3 for a lay-up. Player Xl also fills the lane', opposite player X3.
22 5 man fast break Positions. O1 – guard O2 – forward O3 – forward O4 – power forwardO5 - centrePower Forward secures REBOUNDForward breaks to side of court – OUTLET PASSForward passes to Guard who – DRIBBLES THE MIDDLEGuard (decision by the time he reaches the foul line) – SHOOTS or PASSES OFFForwards get ahead of the ball and - FILL THE LANESCentre and Power Forward - TRAIL – to secure rebounds or to act as primary defencein case of a TURNOVER
23 Strengths of Fast Break 1. The fast break is the best method to create easy scoring opportunities2. The fast break allows you to control the tempo of the game3. The fast break is the first and most effective way of beating full, threequarter,or half-court pressure defences4. The fast break is very effective against zone defences providing your players push the ballup-court quickly enough to get a scoring opportunity before the zone has time to organize.5. Running a fast break combats the numerous changes in defence that one sees today.It is better to get down the floor quickly to eliminate the necessity of worrying about whatparticular defense the opposing team is using at the moment6. Through a fear of being caught up the floor, rebounders may drop off the offensive backboardtoo soon, to the advantage of the fast-breaking team.Conversely, they may stay too long, in an effort to slow down a break.7. Another important advantage of the fast break is that it makes every player a potential scorer.A mediocre scorer, who would get no more than half a dozen scoring opportunities a gamewhen running a motion offence, can pick up many baskets11. Another important advantage of the fast break is that it makes every player a potential scorer. The mediocre scorer, who would get no more than half a dozen scoring opportunities a game when running patterns, can pick up two, three, or
24 Weaknesses of a Fast Break 1. Needs a lot of organisation2. Needs a lot of practice – everyone needs to know their ROLE3. Needs effective communication4. Needs a high level of skills –Rebounding, passing,dribbling and shooting5.All skills need to be applied at SPEED6. Players may desert their defensive duties too early to in anAttempt to Break as quickly as possible7. Can fail early in the Break if the opposition apply animmediate and effective Full court Man to Man marking system
25 Systems of defence The main systems of DEFENCE used in Basketball are Man to man marking – both FULL COURT and HALF COURTZONE defenceA COMBINATION of these two
26 Man to Man MarkingMan to man defence is a system where each player is assigned a player in the offencewho he has to defend. The defensive player positions himself between the basket andthe player he is defending. This can be done when the opponents have the ball in their ownCourt – Full court Man to man, or only when the opponents bring the ball into theattacking half of the court – Half court Man to Man markingSTRENGTHS of Man to Man markingEasy to organiseEasy to understandIt can be an AGGRESSIVE form of defenceYou can put your BEST defender on the opponents BEST attackerIt allows you to mark a player who MUST be marked all the time.It is good against teams who do NOT have the PATIENCE to run a good MOTION OFFENCEAgainst teams that ARE PATIENT it can force then into LONGER possessionsTaking some time off the clock
27 Man to Man marking WEAKNESSES of Man to Man marking Weak against good DRIBBLERSONCE ONE MAN has been BEATEN then the whole system is in disarrayWEAKER or SLOWER defenders are exposedOFFENSIVE SCREENS are very effectiveIt does not DICTATE any thing to the attacking team – it allows them to run their OFFENCECan be physically very demanding
28 Question2003 Higher PaperChoose an activity and a structure ,strategy or composition that you have used.Describe briefly two strengths and two weaknesses that affected your performancewhen applying this structure, strategy or composition (6)
29 Zone defenceA ZONE defence is where you mark an AREA or ZONE instead of marking a specific PLAYERYou MARK whichever PLAYER enters your ZONETypical zone formations would be a 2:1:2 zone or 1:2:2 zoneThe essence of a ZONE defence is that immediately your team loses POSESSION you get backInto your defensive positions as QUICKLY as you can but definitely BEFORE the ball arrives
30 Strengths of a ZONE DEFENCE It allows you to put your defensive players WHERE YOU WANT themregardless of where your opponents puts their playersThis means that you can ensure you have your biggest and best rebounders close to the basketZones are effective against teams that have good inside players because the lane is packedand there is less space for these playersZones are effective against teams that have poor outside shootersZones can ‘Hide’ weak defenders to an extent – becuase other team mates are close by to helpZones can SLOW down your opponents and can take time off the clockZones can be effective against teams that do not have enough PATIENCE to build an effectiveMOTION OFFENCEZones are usually less PHYSICALLY DEMANDING and teams who are tiring orlack a high level of fitness may find them easier to operate.
31 Weaknesses of a ZONE defence Zones tend to be weak on the perimeter and are not so effectiveagainst teams who have good outside shooters.Zones have gaps between players that can be exploited by teams that pass well orhave guards that are good dribbblers and can penetrate the zoneIf a team is behind in the game then playing zone defence usually allows the attacking team toTake more time off the clock on each posessionIf the team does not change ends quickly after posession has been lost then a zone is vulnerableto a fast breakA zone does not present the individual challenge presented by man to man defence.There is less of a feeling of individual responsibility.
32 Question2003 examChoose an activity and a structure strategy or composition which you have used.Describe briefly two strengths and two weaknesses that affected your team’sPerformance when applying this structure strategy or composition. (6)
33 Key concept 3Information processing, problem solving and decision making when workingto develop and improve performanceKey feature – Using information on team/individual performance to make appropriate decisionsWhen DEVELOPING – MONITORING –EVALUATING performanceDeveloping performance – BEFORE performanceMonitoring performance – DURING performanceEvaluating performance – AFTER performanceIn this KEY CONCEPT we look at how you can DEVELOP structures and strategiesBEFORE your performanceHow you can ADAPT and REFINE structures and strategies DURING performanceHow you can EVALUATE the success/failure of structures and strategies AFTER performance
34 Developing performance To develop performance you use INFORMATION PROCESSINGYou use DECISION MAKINGYou use these to SOLVE PROBLEMSInformation which you may PROCESS BEFORE PERFORMANCE could contain some of thefollowingYour knowledge of your opponent’s strengths and weaknessesYou may have seen them play / watched them on videoYou may have had a report from a ‘Scout’You may have done an observation schedule on themYou also have knowledge about your own team’s strengths and weaknessesYou know if your team are fast, skilfull, fit, tall etc.You know which structures and strategies your team are good at / have practicedYou also have information about physical conditions eg. Wet, windy, hot etc.Size and surface of the courtProximity of the crowd etc.Processing all the above information you would make DECISIONS to try toSOLVE THE PROBLEM of how to beat your opponents
35 MONITORING performance During your performance you have to PROCESS INFORMATION, MAKE DECISIONSto SOLVE PROBLEMSSome of the INFORMATION that you would have to PROCESS –DURING THE PERFORMANCE could be -The success / failure of your chosen structure or strategyThe SCORE in the gameThe TIME in the gameThe SITUATION IN THE GAME eg. Foul trouble, injuries, lack of form of a player(s)Actions of your opponents – change of formation, tactics,players etc.Changes to physical conditionsYou would have to PROCESS this sort of INFORMATION and make EFFECTIVE DECISIONSUnder PRESSURE to solve any PROBLEMS in your PERFORMANCE
36 EVALUATING performance After your performance you EVALUATE how successful your PERFORMANCE has been.Some of the INFORMATION you would PROCESS to MAKE DECISIONS toSOLVE PROBLEMS could be -The RESULT of the GAME (s)Watching a VIDEO of your performance and REFLECTING on it.The SUCCESS / FAILURE of the structures and strategies that you USEDFEEDBACK about your PERFORMANCE - VISUAL,VERBAL WRITTENPOSITION in LEAGUE etc.As you EVALUATE how SUCCESSFUL your PERORMANCE has been then you –PROCESS THE INFORMATIONMAKE DECISIONS about FUTURE PERFORMANCESWhich try to SOLVE PROBLEMS
37 QUESTIONChoose an activity. Explain two decisions you made when PLANNING your performance andTwo decisions you made DURING your performance.Explain how these decisions led to a successful performance. (6)