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STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES A STRUCTURE is the FORMATIONS and ORGANISATIONS that teams use in different activities. For example, a 1:3:1 attack formation.

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Presentation on theme: "STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES A STRUCTURE is the FORMATIONS and ORGANISATIONS that teams use in different activities. For example, a 1:3:1 attack formation."— Presentation transcript:

1 STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES A STRUCTURE is the FORMATIONS and ORGANISATIONS that teams use in different activities. For example, a 1:3:1 attack formation in Basketball or a 2:1:2 ZONE DEFENCE A STRATEGY is the management of the TACTICS of the Game – HOW you APPLY the STRUCTURE TACTICS are a PRE DETERMINED GAME PLAN which are designed to make the MOST of Your teams STRENGTHS and EXPLOIT your OPPONENTS WEAKNESSES. TACTICS can be defined as procedures for applying specific offensive/ defensive plans to Meet match demands. During PRACTICE SESSIONS players should practice set moves in order to be able to meet a Variety of game demands. The ability of players to participate in or execute a STRATEGY or TACTICAL PLAN will Depend on the players TECHNICAL, PHYSICAL and MENTAL qualities.


3 Control Space Applying structures and strategies allows you to CONTROL SPACE. In ATTACK you can CREATE and EXPLOIT SPACE In DEFENCE you can DENY SPACE You can MANOEUVRE and OUT – MANOEUVRE OPPONENTS by controlling SPACE

4 Pressurise Opponents In ATTACK you can pressurise OPPONENTS by OVERLOADING an AREA of the COURT Eg. Creating a 3v2 situation in the right lane. In DEFENCE you can PRESSURISE OPPONENTS and DENY them the SPACE that they would want to utilise in their attack.

5 Control Tempo of Play Applying structures and strategies may allow you to control the tempo of play In ATTACK you may use a FAST BREAK where you want to use SPEED to outmanoeuvre your OPPONENTS In DEFENCE you may apply a ZONE DEFENCE where you will be trying to DELAY opponents attack

6 Apply PRINCIPLES OF PLAY Using STRUCTURES and STRATEGIES makes applying PRINCIPLES OF TEAM PLAY (Principles of Play) easier. You will be able to provide WIDTH You will be able to provide DEPTH You will be able to provide MOBILITY and PENETRATION In ATTACK In DEFENCE You will be able to provide WIDTH You will be able to provide DEPTH You will be able to provide DELAY

7 Question Why are STRUCTURES AND STRATEGIES FUNDAMENTAL to Activities? Eg. What does using STRUCTURES and STRATEGIES enable you To do in an activity?

8 KEY CONCEPT 2 Identification of strengths and weaknesses in performance in terms of: roles and relationships ; formations ; tactical and design elements Key feature – In terms of ROLES and RELATIONSHIPS you should be able to Recognise the demands of individual ROLES during performance. Recognise INDIVIDUAL strengths and weaknesses in a STRUCTURE or STRATEGY Select a relevant STRUCTURE or STRATEGY appropriate for INDIVIDUAL / TEAM PERFORMANCE. In terms of FORMATIONS you should be able to understand The benefits and limitations of various SYSTEMS OF PLAY The STRUCTURE of relevant SYSTEMS OF PLAY The need to CO-OPERATE with and SUPPORT others in team or group situations The ABILITY to PRE PLAN STRATEGIES to meet the demands of play In terms of TACTICS you should understand The NEED to IDENTIFY and EXPLOIT OPPONENTS WEAKNESSES Recognise the NEED to MAXIMISE STRENGTHS within the chosen STRUCTURE/STRATEGY

9 ROLES and RELATIONSHIPS In every group or team it is important to know and understand what your individual RESPONSIBILITIES are and how your ROLE RELATES to your TEAM-MATES Here is an example of different players ATTACKING responsibilities in BASKETBALL in TECHNICAL (Skill) terms These are given in ORDER of importance. Order GuardsForwardsCentres 1dribblingshootingrebounding 2Passingreboundingshooting 3Shootingpassingpassing 4Reboundingdribblingdribbling The same can be done for PHYSICAL qualities Order GuardsForwardsCentres 1Speedmuscular endurance +C.r.e.Power + C.r.e. 2Muscular endurancepowermuscular endurance 3C.r.e.muscular endurancemuscular endurance 4Powerspeedspeed Mental qualities like concentration,managing your emotions, mental rehearsal and controlling your level of arousal also need to be taken into consideration when deciding which Role to adopt when part of a team

10 Question Decide which, attacking role in a Basketball team you should adopt(Play). Explain how you arrived at this decision. Take into consideration Technical,Physical and Mental aspects of your Play.

11 Position skills Position Skills In addition to the universal skills of Pass, shoot,dribble and rebound all five offensive player positions have somewhat different secondary skills and attributes. The following is a rather simplified description of these five offensive spots: Point Guard Shooting Guard Small Forward Power Forward Center

12 Point guard Point Guard Most systems designate a player to run the offense. Often referred to as the point guard. This player is usually the best ball handler on the squad. He should be able to lead the fast break that develops out of any situation, whether it be a steal, a rebound, or a basket by the opponent. If the fast break is not there, he must be able to bring the ball up the floor against pressure defense and set up the Motion offense. The point guard does not have to be a big scorer, but should be able to shoot well enough to force defenses to come out and cover him. The point guard should also be an excellent passer. His ability to hit the open player is very important, as is his ability to anticipate the way a play might develop. He should have the ability to get everybody involved in the offense. He should have the ability to penetrate, attract the defense, and finish the play. By finish the play, I mean that he should make sure that the offense gets a good shot, whether it be on a fast break or through penetration and mobility. The point guard should have the Intelligence to read the defenses and adjust the offense accordingly. The ideal point guard is an extension of the coach on the court.

13 Shooting guard Shooting Guard The second guard is frequently the bigger of the two guards. He is generally one of the best outside shooters and, ideally, is the second best ball handler on the team. He must be a good receiver, because he will frequently get the first pass to start the offense. And, therefore, he must also be a good passer in order to keep the offense moving and take advantage of opportunities to get the ball inside to the post players. Like the point guard, the shooting guard should be able to create and finish the play either on the fast break or by passing off to an open teammate. This player can also help the team by grabbing offensive rebounds, either by following the shot or by sneaking in from the weak side to get good rebounding position.

14 Small forward Small Forward The small forward will probably be bigger than the guards, but perhaps not as quick or as good a ball handler. But the small forward should possess many of the same skills as the guards. He should be able to handle the ball well as he is sometimes called upon to help the guards break down defenses. The small forward must also pass the ball well. Sometimes this player can be the best passer on the team, because his slight height advantage over the guards opens up more avenues through which to pass the ball. And he should be able to shoot from the outside. Where the small forward differs from the guards is in the area of offensive rebounding. The small forward must be a good offensive rebounder. From the forward position a player often has the best shot at an offensive rebound because opponents concentrate on blocking out the power forward and center.

15 Centre Center In many cases, the center will be the heart of the team. Like the power forward the centre should be either your best, or second best, rebounder. Unlike the perimeter players, the center must be able to play with his back to the basket and be a solid inside scoring threat. Therefore, you must work with your center to develop the fundamental moves that will allow him to score consistently from inside 10 feet. Because the centre often shoots in traffic he will frequently draw the most fouls. For that reason, the center should be a good free throw shooter. Shots taken near the basket are the highest percentage shots, so a good part of your offense should be designed to get the ball inside to the center.

16 Power forward The Power forward should be one of the biggest and strongest players on the team and therefore, one of your dominant rebounders, both offensively and defensively. ThePower forward should be a physical player. Every team needs a physical presence and,because of his size and strength, the power forward can often provide it. Like the guards and the small forward, the power forward should be able to handle the ball well and be a good passer and receiver. This player's size and strength should enable him to get inside and take the ball to the basket either for an easy shot or to draw a foul.

17 Motion offence Ideally most teams would like to be able to break out of defence and set up a scoring chance before the opposition can get back into defensive positions. This is called a fast break, but it is not always possible. Every coach therefore, will have an offensive pattern which he or she hopes will lead to an open shot every time the team has possession. Motion offence: In this type of attack, the players are moving all the time. It involves fast, accurate passing which can break down one-to-one defences. The guard (the best ball handler) will generally be at the centre of this attack. He or she is positioned slightly behind the forwards, who are to the left and right, around the front of the key. These players are generally good at long range shooting. The two centres - the tallest players - are on either side of the basket. They make good targets and are the best at scoring from close range. A good play in a motion offence is the SCREEN This is when a player occupies some space on the court and prevents an opponent from following a team-mate. It requires lots of practice and there are a number of patterns involving screens. Another play is GIVE AND GO. As the name suggests you pass ahead and then move ahead into A more advantageous position – often CUTTING to the basket. CUTTING is also important to create SPACE. The most common CUT is the V cut where you Move in one direction then QUICKLY CHANGE direction to lose your MARKER Post plays like SPLITTING THE POST also create space and can lead to UNOPPOSED shots being taken

18 Strengths and weaknesses of Motion Offence STRENGTHS You can take your time to build attack Easy to apply team principles – width – depth – mobility - penetration Retains possession of the ball Can be used to run down the clock Can control tempo of game You can pressurise opponents eg. Create 3v2 overload In an area of the court Create and exploit space Weaknesses Slows down play – gives opponents defence time to recover Requires good communication and teamwork Requires constant movement Adaptable to suit your players skills Requires patience

19 Question Choose an activity. Briefly describe a Structure, Strategy or Composition you have used. Describe your ROLE as you applied this Structure, Strategy or Composition

20 Fast break Ideally most teams would like to be able to break out of defence and set up a scoring chance BEFORE The opposition can get back into defensive positions. This is called a FAST BREAK FAST BREAKS can be created from Steals, Rebounds, Blocked shots or scored Baskets The main parts of a basic fast break are Secure the ball Outlet pass Dribble the middle Shoot or pass off Fill the lanes

21 Basic fast break Diagram description Diagram 3 is a drill that involves three players. Player XI rebounds the ball and passes to player X2 who has moved to receive an outlet pass. Player X2 dribbles the middle and passes to player X3 for a lay-up. Player Xl also fills the lane', opposite player X3.

22 5 man fast break Positions.O1 – guard O2 – forward O3 – forward O4 – power forward O5 - centre 1.Power Forward secures REBOUND 2.Forward breaks to side of court – OUTLET PASS 3.Forward passes to Guard who – DRIBBLES THE MIDDLE 4.Guard (decision by the time he reaches the foul line) – SHOOTS or PASSES OFF 5.Forwards get ahead of the ball and - FILL THE LANES 6.Centre and Power Forward - TRAIL – to secure rebounds or to act as primary defence in case of a TURNOVER

23 Strengths of Fast Break 1. The fast break is the best method to create easy scoring opportunities 2. The fast break allows you to control the tempo of the game 3. The fast break is the first and most effective way of beating full, three­quarter, or half-court pressure defences 4. The fast break is very effective against zone defences providing your players push the ball up-court quickly enough to get a scoring opportunity before the zone has time to organize. 5. Running a fast break combats the numerous changes in defence that one sees today. It is better to get down the floor quickly to eliminate the necessity of worrying about what particular defense the opposing team is using at the moment 6. Through a fear of being caught up the floor, rebounders may drop off the offensive backboard too soon, to the advantage of the fast-breaking team. Conversely, they may stay too long, in an effort to slow down a break. 11. Another important advantage of the fast break is that it makes every player a potential scorer. The mediocre scorer, who would get no more than half a dozen scoring opportunities a game when running patterns, can pick up two, three, or11. Another important advantage of the fast break is that it makes every player a potential scorer. The mediocre scorer, who would get no more than half a dozen scoring opportunities a game when running patterns, can pick up two, three, or 7. Another important advantage of the fast break is that it makes every player a potential scorer. A mediocre scorer, who would get no more than half a dozen scoring opportunities a game when running a motion offence, can pick up many baskets

24 Weaknesses of a Fast Break 1. Needs a lot of organisation 2. Needs a lot of practice – everyone needs to know their ROLE 3. Needs effective communication 4. Needs a high level of skills –Rebounding, passing, dribbling and shooting 5.All skills need to be applied at SPEED 6. Players may desert their defensive duties too early to in an Attempt to Break as quickly as possible 7. Can fail early in the Break if the opposition apply an immediate and effective Full court Man to Man marking system

25 Systems of defence The main systems of DEFENCE used in Basketball are Man to man marking – both FULL COURT and HALF COURT ZONE defence A COMBINATION of these two

26 Man to Man Marking Man to man defence is a system where each player is assigned a player in the offence who he has to defend. The defensive player positions himself between the basket and the player he is defending. This can be done when the opponents have the ball in their own Court – Full court Man to man, or only when the opponents bring the ball into the attacking half of the court – Half court Man to Man marking STRENGTHS of Man to Man marking Easy to organise Easy to understand It can be an AGGRESSIVE form of defence You can put your BEST defender on the opponents BEST attacker It is good against teams who do NOT have the PATIENCE to run a good MOTION OFFENCE Against teams that ARE PATIENT it can force then into LONGER possessions Taking some time off the clock It allows you to mark a player who MUST be marked all the time.

27 Man to Man marking WEAKNESSES of Man to Man marking Weak against good DRIBBLERS ONCE ONE MAN has been BEATEN then the whole system is in disarray WEAKER or SLOWER defenders are exposed OFFENSIVE SCREENS are very effective It does not DICTATE any thing to the attacking team – it allows them to run their OFFENCE Can be physically very demanding

28 Question 2003 Higher Paper Choose an activity and a structure,strategy or composition that you have used. Describe briefly two strengths and two weaknesses that affected your performance when applying this structure, strategy or composition (6)

29 Zone defence A ZONE defence is where you mark an AREA or ZONE instead of marking a specific PLAYER You MARK whichever PLAYER enters your ZONE Typical zone formations would be a 2:1:2 zone or 1:2:2 zone The essence of a ZONE defence is that immediately your team loses POSESSION you get back Into your defensive positions as QUICKLY as you can but definitely BEFORE the ball arrives

30 Strengths of a ZONE DEFENCE It allows you to put your defensive players WHERE YOU WANT them regardless of where your opponents puts their players This means that you can ensure you have your biggest and best rebounders close to the basket Zones are effective against teams that have good inside players because the lane is packed and there is less space for these players Zones are effective against teams that have poor outside shooters Zones can Hide weak defenders to an extent – becuase other team mates are close by to help Zones can SLOW down your opponents and can take time off the clock Zones can be effective against teams that do not have enough PATIENCE to build an effective MOTION OFFENCE Zones are usually less PHYSICALLY DEMANDING and teams who are tiring or lack a high level of fitness may find them easier to operate.

31 Weaknesses of a ZONE defence Zones tend to be weak on the perimeter and are not so effective against teams who have good outside shooters. Zones have gaps between players that can be exploited by teams that pass well or have guards that are good dribbblers and can penetrate the zone If a team is behind in the game then playing zone defence usually allows the attacking team to Take more time off the clock on each posession If the team does not change ends quickly after posession has been lost then a zone is vulnerable to a fast break A zone does not present the individual challenge presented by man to man defence. There is less of a feeling of individual responsibility.

32 Question 2003 exam Choose an activity and a structure strategy or composition which you have used. Describe briefly two strengths and two weaknesses that affected your teams Performance when applying this structure strategy or composition.(6)

33 Key concept 3 Information processing, problem solving and decision making when working to develop and improve performance Key feature – Using information on team/individual performance to make appropriate decisions When DEVELOPING – MONITORING –EVALUATING performance Developing performance – BEFORE performance Monitoring performance – DURING performance Evaluating performance – AFTER performance In this KEY CONCEPT we look at how you can DEVELOP structures and strategies BEFORE your performance How you can ADAPT and REFINE structures and strategies DURING performance How you can EVALUATE the success/failure of structures and strategies AFTER performance

34 Developing performance To develop performance you use INFORMATION PROCESSING You use DECISION MAKING You use these to SOLVE PROBLEMS Information which you may PROCESS BEFORE PERFORMANCE could contain some of the following Your knowledge of your opponents strengths and weaknesses You may have seen them play / watched them on video You may have had a report from a Scout You may have done an observation schedule on them You also have knowledge about your own teams strengths and weaknesses You know if your team are fast, skilfull, fit, tall etc. You know which structures and strategies your team are good at / have practiced You also have information about physical conditions eg. Wet, windy, hot etc. Size and surface of the court Proximity of the crowd etc. Processing all the above information you would make DECISIONS to try to SOLVE THE PROBLEM of how to beat your opponents

35 MONITORING performance During your performance you have to PROCESS INFORMATION, MAKE DECISIONS to SOLVE PROBLEMS Some of the INFORMATION that you would have to PROCESS – DURING THE PERFORMANCE could be - The success / failure of your chosen structure or strategy The SCORE in the game The TIME in the game The SITUATION IN THE GAME eg. Foul trouble, injuries, lack of form of a player(s) Actions of your opponents – change of formation, tactics,players etc. Changes to physical conditions You would have to PROCESS this sort of INFORMATION and make EFFECTIVE DECISIONS Under PRESSURE to solve any PROBLEMS in your PERFORMANCE

36 EVALUATING performance After your performance you EVALUATE how successful your PERFORMANCE has been. Some of the INFORMATION you would PROCESS to MAKE DECISIONS to SOLVE PROBLEMS could be - The RESULT of the GAME (s) Watching a VIDEO of your performance and REFLECTING on it. The SUCCESS / FAILURE of the structures and strategies that you USED FEEDBACK about your PERFORMANCE - VISUAL,VERBAL WRITTEN POSITION in LEAGUE etc. As you EVALUATE how SUCCESSFUL your PERORMANCE has been then you – PROCESS THE INFORMATION MAKE DECISIONS about FUTURE PERFORMANCES Which try to SOLVE PROBLEMS

37 QUESTION Choose an activity. Explain two decisions you made when PLANNING your performance and Two decisions you made DURING your performance. Explain how these decisions led to a successful performance. (6)

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