Presentation on theme: "MINOANS MINOANS 2000-1400 BCE LIVED ON THE ISLAND OF CRETE VERY ADVANCED CULTURE ENDED MYSTERIOUSLY."— Presentation transcript:
MINOANS MINOANS 2000-1400 BCE LIVED ON THE ISLAND OF CRETE VERY ADVANCED CULTURE ENDED MYSTERIOUSLY
This civilization was both powerful, and advanced. Their might allowed them to control the Aegean Sea, keeping it free from criminals, and pirates. Evidence from archeological finds show that the Minoans curled their hair, wore gold jewelry and belts. Just as this society was growing and seeing great success, it suddenly disappeared. Many archeologists believe it was destroyed by a giant tidal wave. Others believe they were conquered by another group of people known as the Mycenaeans.
1600 – 1200 BCE, GREECE WARLIKE PEOPLE After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture TROJAN WAR FOUGHT THE TROJAN WAR AGAINST TROY Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found
In order to protect their people, the Mycenaeans built large fortresses astride the hills and mountain tops of their villages. These fortresses offered a place of refuge during times of danger.
Another major Bronze Age civilization in the Aegean was Troy. It was located at the Hellespont, today called Dardanelles, a narrow strait of water from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. The Mycenaeans and the Trojans often battled for supremacy of the Aegean Sea. Crete Asia Minor Troy Hellespont Mycenea Troy
Homer wrote the legend of the Trojan War Homer, a legendary Greek poet, may have lived circa 750 BCE. He is credited for writing the Iliad (The story of the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (The Story of Odysseus return home). History tells us that Homer was blind and an Ionian Greek. No one knows for sure if Homer was a real man or a name given to several ancient authors. circa – around or near
Epics of Homer Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer a blind storyteller Epica narrative poem about heroic deeds Homers epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal
Depiction of funeral games in honor of Patroclus, influenced by Homer's Iliad (book 23).
The Trojan War: The Myth According to Homer, the Trojan War began when the Greek gods Peleus and Thetis forgot to invite Eris, the goddess of discord, to their wedding. Eris came uninvited and played a trick at the wedding. She threw a golden apple on the banquet table and said that it belonged to the most beautiful goddess at the party. The goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite all reached for the apple at the same time. Zeus, the King of the Gods, decided that Paris, prince of Troy and most handsome human on earth, would decide which of the goddesses was most beautiful. Discord – absence of agreement
The Trojan War: The Myth Each goddess offered Paris a prize. Hera promised power, Athena promised wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen, wife of Spartan King Menelaus. Paris chose to have Helen and left for Sparta. While in Sparta, Paris was treated as a royal guest. However, when Menelaus left Sparta to go to a funeral, Paris captured Helen and took her to Troy to be married. This occurred around 1200 BCE. Helen of Troy by Evelyn de Morgan 1898
Menelaus gathered more than a thousand ships under the command Agamemnon and set sail for Troy. In total, 100,000 men from 28 city states throughout the Greek mainland joined Menelaus to attack Troy. Achilles, the greatest warrior of the Trojan War, would defy Agamemnon and challenge his authority. Achilles was known as the warrior of destiny. Achilles was killed by Paris, the weakest warrior, with an arrow to the heel, his weakest point. Achilles in Armor Achilles Death The Trojan War: The Myth
Arriving at Troy, Agamemnon sent Odysseus, known for his great speaking abilities, and Menelaus to ask King Priam, Paris father, to return Helen. Priam refused. For nine years the Greeks and Trojans fought without either side gaining a victory. The wall surrounding Troy held back the Greek army. The Trojans, led by Hector (brother of Paris), had allies from city- states throughout Asia Minor. Hector was later killed by Achilles. The Trojan War: The Myth Hectors body returned to Troy.
ASIA MINOR TROY Sparta Peloponnesus Ithica
The Trojan Horse Odysseus was a clever warrior. He ordered a large wooden horse to be built. The horse was made hollow so that soldiers could hide inside. The Greek fleet sailed away to a hidden harbor and waited. The Trojans believed that the Greeks had given up the war and left the horse as a gift for surrender. The Trojans brought the hollow horse inside the city. That night Odysseus and his men climbed out of the horse, signaled the fleet in hiding and opened the gates of Troy. Odysseus
The Greek soldiers invaded Troy as the Trojan soldiers slept. All males, including infants, were killed; all females taken as slaves, and all of Troys treasures taken as booty. The city was completely demolished. The Trojan War: The Myth
For thousands of years Troy was a legend. However, using clues from the Iliad, an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich Schliemann discovered the location of Troy at Hisarlik, Turkey in 1871. Troy: the archaeologists story Ruins of ancient Troy Heinrich Schliemann
Troy, archeological ruins of two small walls. In total, there were nine cities built at the location of Troy, each on top of the other. The sixth city is the most grand and resembles the Troy in Homers Iliad, but it was destroyed by an earthquake, not by war, in 1250 BCE. The seventh layer of the city appears to be the legendary Troy and has been dated to 1180 BCE. Its towers and walls can still be seen in the ruins and there are arrowheads lying in the streets. The Nine Cities of Troy
Trojan Horse In Greek legend, a huge hollow wooden horse used by the attacking Greeks to gain entrance to the city of Troy, thus ending the Trojan War. Unable to capture the city after a siege of ten years, the Greeks resorted to stratagem.They sailed away and left the horse, filled with armed warriors on the shore. Sinon, a Greek spy, persuaded the Trojans to take the horse into the city, convincing them that to do so would mysteriously Troy invulnerable. That night, Sinon let out the armed Greek troops; killing the guards, they opened the gates to the Greeks and Troy was captured and burned.
By 1200 B.C.E. the Mycenaean fortresses, which had fallen into disrepair due to neglect and battle, were conquered by a new people from the North called Dorians, who spoke the Greek language. Using iron weapons, they had little difficulty defeating the Mycenaeans. DORIANS – 1200 – 800 BCE
After conquering the region, the Dorians fell into a Dark Age. Poverty became widespread, and important skills such as reading and writing were lost. This dark age lasted for 300 – 400 years. The Dark Ages 1200 –800 BCE Dorians were uncivilized, lacking a written language.