Presentation on theme: "Greece Vocab Due Thursday"— Presentation transcript:
1Greece Vocab Due Thursday Greek Ancestors #24Greece Vocab Due ThursdayWarm Up:Start on Vocab
2MINOANS 2000-1400 BCE LIVED ON THE ISLAND OF CRETE VERY ADVANCED CULTUREENDED MYSTERIOUSLY
3This civilization was both powerful, and advanced This civilization was both powerful, and advanced. Their might allowed them to control the Aegean Sea, keeping it free from criminals, and pirates.Evidence from archeological finds show that the Minoans curled their hair, wore gold jewelry and belts. Just as this society was growing and seeing great success, it suddenly disappeared.Many archeologists believe itwas destroyed by a gianttidal wave.Others believe theywere conquered by anothergroup of people known asthe Mycenaeans.
4MYCENAENS 1600 – 1200 BCE, GREECE WARLIKE PEOPLE After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and cultureFOUGHT THE TROJAN WARAGAINST TROYOnce thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found
5In order to protect their people, the Mycenaeans built large fortresses astride the hills and mountain tops of their villages.These fortresses offered a place of refuge duringtimes of danger.
6TroyAnother major Bronze Age civilization in the Aegean was Troy. It was located at the Hellespont, today called Dardanelles, a narrow strait of water from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea. The Mycenaeans and the Trojans often battled for supremacy of the Aegean Sea.CreteAsiaMinorTroyHellespontMyceneaThe Trojans were able to control the trade between Europe and Asia from this point. The Mycenaeans and the Trojans often battled for supremacy of the Aegean trade routes. What we know about Troy comes from both myth and archaeological evidence.
7Homer wrote the legend of the Trojan War Homer, a legendary Greek poet, may have lived circa 750 BCE.He is credited for writing the Iliad (The story of the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (The Story of Odysseus’ return home).History tells us that Homer was blind and an Ionian Greek.No one knows for sure if Homer was a real man or a name given to several ancient authors.circa BCE - Homer was a legendary early Greek poet credited with the writing of the Iliad ( The story of the Trojan War) and the Odyssey (The Story of Oddyseus’ return home). History tells us that Homer was blind and probably was an Ionian Greek. No one knows for sure if Homer was a real man or a name given to several ancient authors of these stories. Herodotus the historian claimed that Homer lived around 850 BCE. It may well be that Homer was a name used for all ancient and popular verse whencirca – around or near
8Epics of HomerOral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer a blind storytellerEpic—a narrative poem about heroic deedsHomer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal
9Depiction of funeral games in honor of Patroclus, influenced by Homer's Iliad (book 23).
10Discord – absence of agreement The Trojan War: The MythAccording to Homer, the Trojan War began when the Greek gods Peleus and Thetis forgot to invite Eris, the goddess of discord, to their wedding.Eris came uninvited and played a trick at the wedding. She threw a golden apple on the banquet table and said that it belonged to the most beautiful goddess at the party.The goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite all reached for the apple at the same time.Zeus, the King of the Gods, decided that Paris, prince of Troy and most handsome human on earth, would decide which of the goddesses was most beautiful.Discord – absence of agreementAccording to Homer, the Trojan War began with the marriage of the Greek gods Peleus and Thetis. The couple had forgotten to invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to the wedding. Eris came to the wedding anyway with a challenge. She threw a golden apple on the banquet table and said that it belonged to the most beautiful goddess at the party. The goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite all reached for the apple. Zeus, the King of the Gods, decided that Paris, prince of Troy and most handsome human on earth, would decide which of the Goddesses was most beautiful.
11Helen of Troy by Evelyn de Morgan 1898 The Trojan War: The MythHelen of Troy by Evelyn de Morgan 1898Each goddess offered Paris a prize.Hera promised power, Athena promised wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen, wife of Spartan King Menelaus.Paris chose to have Helen and left for Sparta.While in Sparta, Paris was treated as a royal guest.However, when Menelaus left Sparta to go to a funeral, Paris captured Helen and took her to Troy to be married.This occurred around 1200 BCE.
12The Trojan War: The Myth Achilles in ArmorThe Trojan War: The MythMenelaus gathered more than a thousand ships under the command Agamemnon and set sail for Troy.In total, 100,000 men from 28 city states throughout the Greek mainland joined Menelaus to attack Troy.Achilles, the greatest warrior of the Trojan War, would defy Agamemnon and challenge his authority.Achilles was known as the warrior of destiny.Achilles was killed by Paris, the weakest warrior, with an arrow to the heel, his weakest point.Menelaus gathered more than a thousand ships under the command of King Agamemnon and set sail for Troy. In total, 100,000 men from 28 city states throughout the Greek mainland from the Peloponnesus, the Dodecanese islands, Crete and Ithaca joined Menelaus to attack Troy.Achilles Death
13The Trojan War: The Myth Hector’s body returned to Troy.The Trojans, led by Hector (brother of Paris), had allies from city-states throughout Asia Minor. Hector was later killed by Achilles.The Trojans, led by Hector (brother of Paris), had allies from city-states throughout Asia Minor, including Thracians, Phrygians, Miletians and Lycians. Hector was later killed by Achilles.Arriving at Troy, Agamemnon sent Odysseus, known for his great ability to speak, and Menelaus to discuss terms with the father of Paris, King Priam of Troy. They demanded Helen be returned. Priam refused, and Odysseus and Menelaus returned to Agamemnon with the news. For nine years the Greeks and Trojans fought without either side gaining a victory. The wall surrounding Troy was too strong for the Greek army to penetrate. There seemed to be no end to the war.Arriving at Troy, Agamemnon sent Odysseus, known for his great speaking abilities, and Menelaus to ask King Priam, Paris’ father, to return Helen. Priam refused. For nine years the Greeks and Trojans fought without either side gaining a victory. The wall surrounding Troy held back the Greek army.
15The Trojan Horse Odysseus was a clever warrior. He ordered a large wooden horse to be built.The horse was made hollow so that soldiers could hide inside.The Greek fleet sailed away to a hidden harbor and waited.The Trojans believed that the Greeks had given up the war and left the horse as a gift for surrender.The Trojans brought the hollow horse inside the city.That night Odysseus and his men climbed out of the horse, signaled the fleet in hiding and opened the gates of Troy.OdysseusOdysseus was not only a good speaker but also a clever warrior. The story goes that he ordered a large wooden horse to be built. The horse was made hollow so that soldiers could hide inside. Once the horse was built many Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, hid inside. The Greek fleet sailed away to a hidden harbor and waited. The Trojans believed that the Greeks had given up the war and left the horse as a gift for surrender. The Trojans brought the hollow horse inside the city. That night Odysseus and his men climbed out of the horse, signaled the fleet in hiding and opened the gates of Troy.
16The Trojan War: The Myth The Greek soldiers invaded Troy as the Trojan soldiers slept.All males, including infants, were killed; all females taken as slaves, and all of Troy’s treasures taken as booty.The city was completely demolished.The Greek soldiers invaded the Troy as the Trojan soldiers slept. Troy was completely destroyed--every single man and boy were killed (including infant boys), every woman and girl were taken as slaves, and all of Troy’s treasures were taken as booty. The city was razed to the ground. Though Menelaus wanted to kill his unfaithful wife, he was overwhelmed by Helen's beauty and he allowed her to live.
17Troy: the archaeologist’s story For thousands of years Troy was a legend. However, using clues from the Iliad, an amateur archaeologist named Heinrich Schliemann discovered the location of Troy at Hisarlik, Turkey in 1871.(There is a controversy that British archaeologist Frank Calvert actually located Troy first. )Heinrich SchliemannRuins of ancient Troy
18Troy, archeological ruins of two small walls. The Nine Cities of TroyIn total, there were nine cities built at the location of Troy, each on top of the other.The sixth city is the most grand and resembles the Troy in Homer’s Iliad, but it was destroyed by an earthquake, not by war, in 1250 BCE.The seventh layer of the city appears to be the legendary Troy and has been dated to 1180 BCE.Its towers and walls can still be seen in the ruins and there are arrowheads lying in the streets.Troy, archeological ruins of two small walls.The seventh layer of the city appears to be the legendary Troy and has been dated to 1180 BCE. Its towers and walls can still be seen in the ruins and there are arrowheads lying in the streets. The massive walls of Troy number seven are 16 feet thick! Researchers believe that Homer used the description of Troy number six to tell the story of the Trojan war.
19Trojan HorseIn Greek legend, a huge hollow wooden horse used by the attacking Greeks to gain entrance to the city of Troy, thus ending the Trojan War.Unable to capture the city after asiege of ten years, the Greeks resorted to stratagem.They sailed away and left the horse, filled with armed warriors on the shore. Sinon, a Greek spy, persuaded the Trojans to take the horse into the city,convincing them that to do so wouldmysteriously Troy invulnerable.That night, Sinon let out the armedGreek troops; killing the guards,they opened the gates to the Greeksand Troy was captured and burned.
20DORIANS – 1200 – 800 BCEBy 1200 B.C.E. the Mycenaean fortresses, which had fallen into disrepair due to neglect and battle, were conquered by a new people from the North calledDorians, who spoke theGreek language.Using iron weapons, theyhad little difficultydefeating the Mycenaeans.
21Dorians were uncivilized, lacking a written language. The Dark Ages 1200 –800 BCEDorians were uncivilized, lacking a writtenlanguage.After conquering the region, the Dorians fell into a ‘Dark Age’.Poverty became widespread,and important skills such as reading and writing were lost. This dark age lasted for 300 – 400 years.