Presentation on theme: "CMP0394 e-Logistics Systems Instructor: Timothy Kf Au URL: cmp0394."— Presentation transcript:
CMP0394 e-Logistics Systems Instructor: Timothy Kf Au URL: cmp0394
2 Chapter 4 Combination with Other Information Technology-based Processes Combination with Other Information Technology-based Processes – Material Requirements Planning (MRP) – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) – Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) – Response Management Systems (ERMS) – Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) – Amalgamation of SCM and CRM
3 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) What does Supply Chain Mean to Manufacturing? – From the perspective of a manufacturing company, the supply chain includes not only the steps involved in buying and bringing raw materials to the factory, – but also those involved in manufacturing the finished goods, storing them and delivering them to the end user.
4 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Resource Requirements Planning – In the chapter 3, we have discussed that e-Logistics also improves the delivery of goods and services at reduced cost through development of methods for supply chain management including advances in data management and increasingly sophisticated planning and scheduling systems. – Planners take forecasts of demand for logistics and plan the supply to meet this demand. Such forecasts are often unreliable.
5 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) – The way to get around the supply-demand problems is to match (best-fit) the supply of logistics to actual demand. – Based on the known, in some ways we could find out, we want the actual demand rather than using unreliable forecasts – this might seems be rather optimistic at the first sight.
6 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) – Uses the master schedule, along with other relevant information, to plan the supply of materials. – It is used for dependent demands.
7 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) The MRP functions Three main sources of information for MRP: – Order planning and control: when to release orders and for what quantity; – Priority planning and control: how the expected date of availability compares to the need date of each item; – Capacity Planning requirements and development of broad business plans.
8 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) The MRP approach Three main sources of information for MRP: – Master production schedule (MPS): provides the number of every stock item to be made every period / cycle / season; – Bills of material (BOM): is a list of materials needed for every stock item; – Inventory Status File (ISF): is a record showing the materials available.
9 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Material Requirements Planning (MRP) system – A MRP system is a manufacturing planning tools; computer-based production and inventory control system; – to minimize the inventory while ensuring adequate materials available for productions; – automation tools for order entry, sales and marketing, manufacturing, production scheduling and control, accounting, finance, human resources.
10 Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) Moving to MRP II – Materials are only one of the resources; organisations have to schedule others resources such as people, equipment, facilities, finances, transportation. – The natural extension of MRP led to Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II).
11 Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) – While MRP or MRP I (we wouldn'tt refer PS as PS1 before the emerging of the PS2) address the issues of inbound logistics flow of the inventory; MRP II adds finance, marketing and somewhat integrated logistics; – Increase customer satisfaction, improve delivery, better response, reduce inventory levels and costs and allow more flexibility.
12 Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) – MRP II provides an integrated system for synchronizing all related functions within an organisation in the aspects of manufacturing. – It links up all the schedules for all related functions and resources back to the master schedule.
13 Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) MRP II linking up logistics activities – Linking up all activities to master schedule could give a very efficient logistics; – During the moving up from MRP to MRP II, many companies see the difficulties. Many companies prefer to implement a partial systems where the MRP approach is still used to plan logistics activities; – The partial system is retitled as distribution resource planning (DRP) or logistics resource planning (LRP).
14 Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) The emergence: MRP MRP II ERP – The emergence of the MRP (material requirements planning) to MRP II (manufacturing resources planning) and the next move of the MRP evolution would possibly embracing the processing, manufacturing and distribution.
15 The ERP/MRP Integration The ERP/MRP integration – This integration it embodied naturally made it attractive to other functional components of the business – finance, human resources and project management. – MRP II was found to be a more and more misleading term as it covered more and more extensive domains and it was therefore better renamed ERP.
16 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP is the backbone of e-business – Market leaders turbocharged their business to run a breakneck speed on a transactional backbone called Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). – ERP works like an information lubricant, facilitating the exchange data among corporate division through the unification of key processes. – The first step in back-office transforming.
17 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Elements of ERP – EPR is not a single system but a framework of administrative applications (accounting and finance, human resources), manufacturing applications (production scheduling, planning), sales distribution (order entry) and integrated logistics. – ERP unites core business processes – from order processing, production and delivery.
18 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP – The first step: effective service delivery require integrated back-office system – Second wave: e-Commerce drives more ERP demand. – ERP decision = enterprise architecture planning
19 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) ERP in real world – Phase 1: Structural functionalities Reliability Best practice functionalities – Phase 2 Extension of core vertical functions Ease of implementation and rollouts Enhance processes functionalities – Phase 3 Ease of use Value to customer through supply chain integration Low TCO (total cost of ownership)
20 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) – DRP applies MRP II principles to the flow of finished goods to field warehouses and customers. – Although MRP was improved by MRP II by catering for both materials management and production scheduling; it does not cater for outbound movement of the logistics flow.
21 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) – acts as a buffer or automatic synchronous control – by adjusting the order patterns – if inventory needs vary, respond more readily to system-wide inventory needs and better deal with product availability and timeliness. – DRP II further enhance the system by planning for the entire storage and movement of inventory by combining MRP II and DRP and you may call this DRP II.
22 Distribution Resource Planning (DRP) The relationship between MRP II and DRP Market 1 Customer Focus Market 2 Customer Focus Market 3 Customer Focus Market 4 Customer Focus DRP Master production schedule MRPI I ERP
23 Just-in-time (JIT) Just-in-time manufacturing can be defined as: – Produce and deliver finished goods just in time to be sold, sub-assemblies just-in-time to be assembled into finished goods, fabricated parts just in time to go into sub-assemblies; and purchased materials just in time transformed into fabricated parts. – JIT is a disciplined approach to improve manufacturing quality, flexibility and productivity through the elimination of waste and the total involvement of people.
24 Emerging Integrated Logistics Concepts There are five concepts come to the forefront recently: – Service Response Logistics (SRL); – Quick Response Logistics (QRL); – Response Logistics Recovery (RLR); – Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) and – Reverse Logistics.
25 Service Response Logistics (SRL) – While traditional logistics focus on the product movement; – Service response logistics addresses the coordination of non-material activities to fulfill the service efficiently and effectively. – Physical logistics and Service response logistics are dependent on each others; – Integrated Logistics Process Fig. 4.1 [BOM2002]
26 Service Response Logistics (SRL) Service Response Logistics (SRL) functions – Service request for sales forecasting – Partnership development – Staff, equipment, facilities scheduling and capacity planning – Distribution channel selection – Data collection, pickup customer/parts/repair items – Data and physical storage, retrieval and management – Quality customer service, quality assurance, expediting, billing – Interfacing with trading partners – Information infrastructure planning – System administration and network administration – Personnel/customer movement, data/information movement – Customer reporting, service engineering, routing and scheduling to customer transportation sites.
27 Service Response Logistics (SRL) Service Response Logistics (SRL) Model 1. Establish discussions with the customer; 2. Determine what the customer really needs; 3. Determine if the firm can deliver customer needs; 4. Commit to customer; 5. Evaluate the customers response; 6. Schedule the customers service delivery; 7. Inform delivery partners concerning the schedule; 8. Monitor the service delivery process; 9. Counsel partners;
28 Service Response Logistics (SRL) Intermediaries in Service Response Logistics (SRL) – Agents – Retailers – Wholesalers – Franchises – Electronic channels
29 Quick Response Logistics (QRL) – Some QRL system are the EDI version of JIT. – QRL means reducing the order cycle. – Many retailers adopt QRL, products purchased with the bar codes scanned, recording the inventory level. – Purchase orders are automatically generated and electronically through e-PO to the suppliers. – with the exact department code, style, color and size.
30 Quick Response Logistics (QRL) – The supplier then picks up the order for the reorder items to refill the stock requirements; – and transported to the retails almost immediately. – Obviously, QRL reduces the order cycle. In addition, it reduces costs and transcription errors. – Implementing QRL has positive impact to inventory management. How?
31 Quick Response Logistics (QRL) – To achieve the benefits of QRL, company must establish partnerships and alliances – must be forged to trust and mutual dependency. – In essence, alliances become a part of the horizontal pipelines where products flow seamlessly from suppliers to customers. – Of course, powerful retailers may invert or tilt the pipeline. – In any case, QRL system must be built with long term relationship between suppliers and retailers.
32 Quick Response Logistics (QRL) Approaches to Quick Response Logistics (QRL) QRL model based on trust and mutual dependency customer supplier retailer Power and Fear relationship Trust and dependency relationship customer retailer supplier QRL model based on fear and power
33 Response Logistics Recovery (RLR) – The term Response Logistics Recovery (RLR) relates to integrated logistics and customer service interface. – RLR can be defined how quick integrated logistics reacts to service error and turn a mistake into a customer service advantages.
34 Response Logistics Recovery (RLR) – Example 1: How would you handle your customer for a a delay shipment by the carrier while you wont want to let your customer unhappy? – Example 2: What would you suggest if a customer returns a broken parts for replacing?
35 Response Logistics Recovery (RLR) – This does not count into downtimes, it demonstrates the responsiveness to customer needs. – Customer generally understand that mistakes happen – as long as it not too often, it will be okay. – What really concerns them is how a supplier reacts to the problem.
36 Efficient Consumer Response (ECR) – ECR was initially introduced in the grocery industry. – Like QRL, the goal of ECR is to reduce order cycle time. – In ECR, the suppliers and retailers work closely together to capture to point-of-sale information and then send back to the distribution channel. – Partnerships and alliances are required to realise this benefits to reduce consumer price.
37 Reverse Logistics – Deals with products that flows in the opposite direction from the standard logistics channel – the products and services flow back to the manufacturer.
38 Response Management Systems(ERMS) Response Management Systems – are automatic routing and response tools that allow you to assign and match the most appropriate agent or workforce based on the expertise and skills availability.
39 Response Management Systems(ERMS) Components of ERMS – Smart Parsing and Processing Automatic acknowledgement Intelligent scripting response processing workflow engine Natural language processor – Intelligent Routing and Queuing Auto-routing to define queues based on priority, service request, department and etc. Workload or skill-based routing assignment Workflow-driven (or rule-based) logical routing – Effective Request Handling Dynamic response template Knowledge base Support SLA
40 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) Customer Satisfaction and Integrated Logistics – The goals of this business framework are: Use existing relationships to grow revenue; Use integrated information for excellent services; Introduce more repeatable sales processes and procedures; Create new value and loyalty; Implement more proactive solutions strategy.
41 Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Electronic Customer Relationship Management (e-CRM) Customer Satisfaction and Integrated Logistics – The three phases of CRM: Acquisition Enhancement Retention
42 The amalgamation of supply chain management and customer relationship management (CRM) The amalgamation of supply chain management and customer relationship management (CRM) can radically improve competitiveness. Cost reductions and customer service enhancements – exlucded form old economy strategic thinking. The objective of the right product in the right place at the right time and cost is accommodated to a greater extent than previously possible.
43 The amalgamation of supply chain management and customer relationship management (CRM) eLogistics enables organisations to see the big picture by capturing and sifting data for procurement and fulfilment. Ultimately management of the entire supply chain is e- enabled and logistics generated data can feed back into strategic and tactical decisions made by other parts of the organisation. The Internet ultimately provides access to true rather than forecast supply and demand information. ELogistics also permits a closer integration of a companys internal business systems with collaborative information from partners and web-based functions and information.
44 The amalgamation of supply chain management and customer relationship management (CRM) eLogistics represents – improved business processes, allowing for real-time visibility, seamless channel linkage and collaborative solutions in the supply chain. – with more companies seeking success through the efficiency of their supply chains, logistics is now an issue for owners / senior managers as well as the shipping supervisor. – a key competitive weapon.
45 Amalgamation of SCM and CRM The amalgamation of SCM and CRM – Improve competitiveness; – Cost reduction; – Enhance customer satisfaction – It is not mutually exclusive as in the old economy. E-logistics enables organizations to see the big picture: – Capture and sift procurement and fulfillment; – and the ultimate management of supply chain is e-enabled – The Internet provides the access. E-logistics provides a closer integration of internal business system with external information thru collaboration
46 Amalgamation of SCM and CRM E-logistics represents the foundation for improved business processes: visibility, seamless channel and collaborative solutions; E-logistics is in fact a key competitive weapon.
47 58CMP0394A e-Logistics Systems Autumn 2004 Coursework Assessment – 30% Coursework – 70% Final Examination – To be submitted on the 10 th Lecture 10.January.2005 * This coursework subjects to be final confirmation by HKBU SCE.
48 58CMP0394A e-Logistics Systems Autumn 2004 Coursework Coursework You are a SCM manager of a company having logistics requirement to achieve its competitiveness in the market. Based on the business requirement your company plays in the supply chain, devise your logistics strategy and implementation. You are required to produce a short report in a few pages as described in Part (A) to (D) of the question paper (or Lecture 4 Slides):
49 58CMP0394A e-Logistics Systems Autumn 2004 Coursework Coursework Guidelines – The objective to your express your own ideas and to demonstrate your understanding on the topic. – There is no limit in number pages and number of words. A short report in a few pages could be around 2 or 3 pages or around 500 words. Lengthy report document is not encouraged; your report should not more than 1000 words.
50 58CMP0394A e-Logistics Systems Autumn 2004 Coursework Suggested Document Outline – You can design your presentation document style. The following is a suggested report presentation format for your reference. Cover Page 1. Executive Summary 2. Background/Overview 3. Report Body Part (A)-(D) 4. Recommendation/Conclusion Reference and acknowledge any work from published or unpublished material
51 58CMP0394A e-Logistics Systems Autumn 2004 Coursework Coursework Guidelines (continued) – You are required to write-up a half-page summary on the whole document – from the senior and top executive perspective. – Block diagrams and figures are useful to describe your design and implementation. – No plagiarism is allowed and no need. – You may reference to academic papers, journals, periodicals, magazine, reference book, web site and URL.
52 Thank you! Any Question? Instructor: Timothy Kf Au URL: cmp0394