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Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 22 The Respiratory System.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 22 The Respiratory System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition 22 The Respiratory System

2 Breathing Patterns Eupnea = normal quiet breathing Apnea = temporary cessation of breathing Dyspnea =difficult or labored breathing

3 Modified Respiratory Movements Coughing deep inspiration, closure of rima glottidis & strong expiration blasts air out to clear respiratory passages Hiccuping spasmodic contraction of diaphragm & quick closure of rima glottidis produce sharp inspiratory sound

4 Tidal volume = amount air moved during quiet breathing MVR= minute ventilation is amount of air moved in a minute Reserve volumes ---- amount you can breathe either in or out above that amount of tidal volume Residual volume = 1200 mL permanently trapped air in system Vital capacity & total lung capacity are sums of the other volumes Lung Volumes and Capacities

5 Daltons Law Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all other gases were not present partial pressures denoted as p Total pressure is sum of all partial pressures atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg) = pO2 + pCO2 + pN2 + pH2O to determine partial pressure of O2-- multiply 760 by % of air that is O2 (21%) = 160 mm Hg

6 Henrys Law Quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid depends upon the amount of gas present and its solubility coefficient explains why you can breathe compressed air while scuba diving despite 79% Nitrogen N2 has very low solubility unlike CO2 (soda cans) dive deep & increased pressure forces more N2 to dissolve in the blood (nitrogen narcosis) decompression sickness if come back to surface too fast or stay deep too long Breathing O2 under pressure dissolves more O2 in blood

7 Hyperbaric Oxygenation Clinical application of Henrys law Use of pressure to dissolve more O2 in the blood treatment for patients with anaerobic bacterial infections (tetanus and gangrene) anaerobic bacteria die in the presence of O2 Hyperbaric chamber pressure raised to 3 to 4 atmospheres so that tissues absorb more O2 Used to treat heart disorders, carbon monoxide poisoning, cerebral edema, bone infections, gas embolisms & crush injuries

8 External Respiration Gases diffuse from areas of high partial pressure to areas of low partial pressure Exchange of gas between air & blood Deoxygenated blood becomes saturated Compare gas movements in pulmonary capillaries to tissue capillaries

9 Internal Respiration Exchange of gases between blood & tissues Conversion of oxygenated blood into deoxygenated Observe diffusion of O2 inward at rest 25% of available O2 enters cells during exercise more O2 is absorbed Observe diffusion of CO2 outward

10 Oxygen Transport in the Blood Oxyhemoglobin contains 98.5% chemically combined oxygen and hemoglobin inside red blood cells Does not dissolve easily in water only 1.5% transported dissolved in blood Only the dissolved O2 can diffuse into tissues Factors affecting dissociation of O2 from hemoglobin are important Oxygen dissociation curve shows levels of saturation and oxygen partial pressures

11 Acidity & Oxygen Affinity for Hb As acidity increases, O2 affinity for Hb decreases Bohr effect H+ binds to hemoglobin & alters it O2 left behind in needy tissues

12 pCO2 & Oxygen Release As pCO2 rises with exercise, O2 is released more easily CO2 converts to carbonic acid & becomes H+ and bicarbonate ions & lowers pH.

13 Temperature & Oxygen Release As temperature increases, more O2 is released Metabolic activity & heat More BPG, more O2 released RBC activity hormones like thyroxine & growth hormone

14 Carbon Monoxide Poisoning CO from car exhaust & tobacco smoke Binds to Hb heme group more successfully than O2 CO poisoning Treat by administering pure O2

15 Carbon Dioxide Transport 100 ml of blood carries 55 ml of CO2 Is carried by the blood in 3 ways dissolved in plasma combined with the globin part of Hb molecule forming carbaminohemoglobin as part of bicarbonate ion CO2 + H2O combine to form carbonic acid that dissociates into H+ and bicarbonate ion

16 Summary of Gas Exchange & Transport

17 The dorsal respiratory group (DRG), or inspiratory center: Is located near the root of nerve IX Appears to be the pacesetting respiratory center Excites the inspiratory muscles and sets eupnea (12-15 breaths/minute) Becomes dormant during expiration The ventral respiratory group (VRG) is involved in forced inspiration and expiration Control of Respiration: Medullary Respiratory Centers

18 Figure Control of Respiration: Medullary Respiratory Centers

19 Pons centers: Influence and modify activity of the medullary centers Smooth out inspiration and expiration transitions and vice versa The pontine respiratory group (PRG) – continuously inhibits the inspiration center Control of Respiration: Pons Respiratory Centers

20 A result of reciprocal inhibition of the interconnected neuronal networks in the medulla Other theories include Inspiratory neurons are pacemakers and have intrinsic automaticity and rhythmicity Stretch receptors in the lungs establish respiratory rhythm Respiratory Rhythm

21 Inspiratory depth is determined by how actively the respiratory center stimulates the respiratory muscles Rate of respiration is determined by how long the inspiratory center is active Respiratory centers in the pons and medulla are sensitive to both excitatory and inhibitory stimuli Depth and Rate of Breathing

22 Medullary Respiratory Centers Figure 22.25

23 Pulmonary irritant reflexes – irritants promote reflexive constriction of air passages Inflation reflex (Hering-Breuer) – stretch receptors in the lungs are stimulated by lung inflation Upon inflation, inhibitory signals are sent to the medullary inspiration center to end inhalation and allow expiration Depth and Rate of Breathing: Reflexes

24 Hypothalamic controls act through the limbic system to modify rate and depth of respiration Example: breath holding that occurs in anger A rise in body temperature acts to increase respiratory rate Cortical controls are direct signals from the cerebral motor cortex that bypass medullary controls Examples: voluntary breath holding, taking a deep breath Depth and Rate of Breathing: Higher Brain Centers

25 Changing P CO2 levels are monitored by chemoreceptors of the brain stem Carbon dioxide in the blood diffuses into the cerebrospinal fluid where it is hydrated Resulting carbonic acid dissociates, releasing hydrogen ions P CO2 levels rise (hypercapnia) resulting in increased depth and rate of breathing Depth and Rate of Breathing: P CO2

26 Figure 22.26

27 Hyperventilation – increased depth and rate of breathing that: Quickly flushes carbon dioxide from the blood Occurs in response to hypercapnia Though a rise CO 2 acts as the original stimulus, control of breathing at rest is regulated by the hydrogen ion concentration in the brain Depth and Rate of Breathing: P CO2

28 Hypoventilation – slow and shallow breathing due to abnormally low P CO2 levels Apnea (breathing cessation) may occur until P CO2 levels rise Depth and Rate of Breathing: P CO2

29 Arterial oxygen levels are monitored by the aortic and carotid bodies Substantial drops in arterial P O2 (to 60 mm Hg) are needed before oxygen levels become a major stimulus for increased ventilation If carbon dioxide is not removed (e.g., as in emphysema and chronic bronchitis), chemoreceptors become unresponsive to P CO2 chemical stimuli In such cases, P O2 levels become the principal respiratory stimulus (hypoxic drive) Depth and Rate of Breathing: P CO2

30 Changes in arterial pH can modify respiratory rate even if carbon dioxide and oxygen levels are normal Increased ventilation in response to falling pH is mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors Depth and Rate of Breathing: Arterial pH

31 Peripheral Chemoreceptors Figure 22.27

32 Acidosis may reflect: Carbon dioxide retention Accumulation of lactic acid Excess fatty acids in patients with diabetes mellitus Respiratory system controls will attempt to raise the pH by increasing respiratory rate and depth Depth and Rate of Breathing: Arterial pH

33 Respiratory adjustments are geared to both the intensity and duration of exercise During vigorous exercise: Ventilation can increase 20 fold Breathing becomes deeper and more vigorous, but respiratory rate may not be significantly changed (hyperpnea) Exercise-enhanced breathing is not prompted by an increase in P CO2 or a decrease in P O2 or pH These levels remain surprisingly constant during exercise Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise

34 As exercise begins: Ventilation increases abruptly, rises slowly, and reaches a steady state When exercise stops: Ventilation declines suddenly, then gradually decreases to normal Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise

35 Neural factors bring about the above changes, including: Psychic stimuli Cortical motor activation Excitatory impulses from proprioceptors in muscles Respiratory Adjustments: Exercise

36 The body responds to quick movement to high altitude (above 8000 ft) with symptoms of acute mountain sickness – headache, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness Respiratory Adjustments: High Altitude

37 Acclimatization – respiratory and hematopoietic adjustments to altitude include: Increased ventilation – 2-3 L/min higher than at sea level Chemoreceptors become more responsive to P CO2 Substantial decline in P O2 stimulates peripheral chemoreceptors Respiratory Adjustments: High Altitude

38 Exemplified by chronic bronchitis and obstructive emphysema Patients have a history of: Smoking Dyspnea, where labored breathing occurs and gets progressively worse Coughing and frequent pulmonary infections COPD victims develop respiratory failure accompanied by hypoxemia, carbon dioxide retention, and respiratory acidosis Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

39 Pathogenesis of COPD Figure 22.28

40 Characterized by dyspnea, wheezing, and chest tightness Active inflammation of the airways precedes bronchospasms Airway inflammation is an immune response caused by release of IL-4 and IL-5, which stimulate IgE and recruit inflammatory cells Airways thickened with inflammatory exudates magnify the effect of bronchospasms Asthma

41 Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis Symptoms include fever, night sweats, weight loss, a racking cough, and splitting headache Treatment entails a 12-month course of antibiotics Tuberculosis

42 Accounts for 1/3 of all cancer deaths in the U.S. 90% of all patients with lung cancer were smokers The three most common types are: Squamous cell carcinoma (20-40% of cases) arises in bronchial epithelium Adenocarcinoma (25-35% of cases) originates in peripheral lung area Small cell carcinoma (20-25% of cases) contains lymphocyte-like cells that originate in the primary bronchi and subsequently metastasize Lung Cancer

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