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**Boundary layer with pressure gradient in flow direction.**

Separation & Flow induced Vibration Unit # 5: Potter 8.6.7, 8.2, 8.3.2

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**Boundary layer flow with pressure gradient**

So far we neglected the pressure variation along the flow in a boundary layer This is not valid for boundary layer over curved surface like airfoil Owing to object’s shape the free stream velocity just outside the boundary layer varies along the length of the surface. As per Bernoullis equation, the static pressure on the surface of the object, therefore, varies in x- direction along the surface. There is no pressure variation in the y- direction within the boundary layer. Hence pressure in boundary layer is equal to that just outside it. As this pressure just outside of a boundary layer varies along x axis that inside the boundary layer also varies along x axis

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Separation In a situation where pressure increases down stream the fluid particles can move up against it by virtue of its kinetic energy. Inside the boundary layer the velocity in a layer could reduce so much that the kinetic energy of the fluid particles is no longer adequate to move the particles against the pressure gradient. This leads to flow reversal. Since the fluid layer higher up still have energy to mover forward a rolling of fluid streams occurs, which is called separation

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Onset of separation

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Figure 8.27 – Influence of a strong pressure gradient on a turbulent flow: (a) a strong negative pressure gradient may re-laminarize a flow; (b) a strong positive pressure gradient causes a strong boundary layer top thicken. (Photograph by R.E. Falco)

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Bernoullis equation It is valid just outside Boundary Layer, where between two points (1,2) on the flow stream (1) Since pressure in the boundary layer is same on y axis and that just outside, the expression for pressure gradient along x is also valid inside the boundary layer. Navier Stokes eq. is valid inside boundary layer. Eq. (8.6.45) from Potter we have (2)

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**Substituting in Eq. (2) boundary condition at wall u=0, v=0 we get (3)**

It is valid for both laminar & turbulent flows as very near the wall both flows are laminar From the above expression we see that when pressure decreases second derivative of velocity is negative. So the velocity initially increases fast and then gently blend with the free stream velocity U For adverse pressure gradient ( dP/dx >0) second derivative is positive at wall but must be negative at the top of boundary layer to match with U. Thus it must pass through a point of inflexion. Separation occurs when the velocity gradient is zero at the wall and shear stress at wall is zero

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**Influence of the pressure gradient.**

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**Separation Separation starts with zero velocity gradient at the wall**

Flow reversal takes place beyond separation point dP/dx >0 Adverse pressure gradient is necessary for separation There is no pressure change after separation So, pressure in the separated region is constant. Fluid in turbulent boundary layer has appreciably more momentum than the flow of a laminar B.L. Thus a turbulent B.L can penetrate further into an adverse pressure gradient without separation

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Smooth ball Rough ball

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**Effect of a wire ring on separation**

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Effect of separation There is an increase in drag as a result of separation as it prevents pressure recovery There is low pressure in separated region and it persists in the entire region. Turbulent eddies formed due to separation can not convert their rotational energy back into pressure head. So there is no pressure recovery (increase). The difference between high pressure at the front and low pressure at rear increases the drag. This increase in drag overshadows any increase in lift due to increase in the angle of attack

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Control of separation Streamlining reduces adverse pressure gradient beyond the maximum thickness and delays separation Fluid particles lose kinetic energy near separation point. So these are either removed by suction or higher energy High energy fluid is blown near separation point Roughening surface to force early transition to turbulent boundary layer

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**Separation delays by suction**

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**Pressure & Velocity change in a converging diverging duct**

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**Boundary layer growth in a nozzle-diffuser**

Throat Diffuser Area Decreasing Constant Increasing Velocity increasing Velocity Constant decreasing Pressure decreases Pressure Constant Pressure increases Pressure gradient Favourable Zero Adverse

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Problem (White-7.63) Assume that the front surface velocity on an infinitely long cylinder is given by potential theory , V = 2Usinq from which the surface pressure is computed by Bernoullis equation. In the separated flow on the rear, the pressure is assumed equal to its value at q=90. Compute the theoretical drag coefficient and compare that with the experimental value of 1.2 [This problem may show the inadequacy of potential flow theory near the surface]

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**Flow induced vibration (Von Karman Vortex)**

Vortices are created on both sides of a symmetric blunt object. However the vortices are not created simultaneously on both ends. So this leads to alternate shedding of vortices in the flow range 40<Re<10,000. This induces a vibration, which if matched with the natural frequency of the object may be disastrous. The frequency f is related to Strouhl number St = fD/U, where D is diameter and U is velocity. St = 0.198(1-19.7/Re) for 250<Re<2x105

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Home work (Potter p-361) The velocity of a slow moving air (kinematic viscosity=1.6x10-5) is to be measured using a 6 cm cylinder. The velocity range expected to be 0.1<U <1 m/s. Do you expect vortex shedding to occur? If so, what frequency would be observed by the pressure measuring device for U=1 m/s.

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Drag on airfoil Separation is reduced by slightly bending the leading edge. By giving air foil shape to the plate drag is further reduced But further tilting brings back the separation

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PHAROS UNIVERSITY ME 253 FLUID MECHANICS II

PHAROS UNIVERSITY ME 253 FLUID MECHANICS II

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