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Annual Conference of ITA ACITA 2009 Knowledge-Driven Agile Sensor-Mission Assignment A. Preece*, D. Pizzocaro*, K. Borowiecki*, G. de Mel, W. Vasconcelos, A.Bar-Noy, M. P. Johnson, T. La Porta§, H. Rowaihy§ *Cardiff University, UK; contact email: a.d.preece@cs.cardiff.ac.uk; University of Aberdeen, UK City University of New York, USA; §Pennsylvania State University, USA Knowledge representation and reasoning techniques can support sensor-mission assignment, proceeding from a high-level specification of information requirements, to the allocation of assets such as sensors and platforms. In our previous work, we showed how assets can be matched to mission tasks by formalising the military missions and means framework in terms of an ontology, and using this ontology to drive a matchmaking procdure. The work reported here extends the earlier approach in two important ways: (1) by providing a richer and more realistic way for a user to specify their information requirements, and (2) by using the results of the semantic matchmaking process to define the search space for efficient asset allocation algorithms. The Task-Bundle-Asset model defines the search space relating what bundles of assets are required for different types of task. Higher-level task representations allow knowledge base to offer widest range of ISTAR solution types. Task: detect vehicles Bundle 1: UAV+IMINT Bundle 2: acoustic motes Tasks denote the entities that are competing for available assets. In our approach, the only important feature of a task is its information requirements. Bundles are collections of individual assets (sensors and platforms). An arc between a bundle and a task indicates that the bundle is able to meet (at least to some extent) that information requirement (task). Each bundle has a unique bundle type. Assets represent the individual sensor and platform resources. An arc between an asset and a bundle means that that asset can be assigned to that bundle. A solution to the sensor-mission assignment problem is an assignment of bundles to tasks, subject to the constraints: each task can have at most one bundle assigned to it, a bundle may be assigned to at most one task, each asset may be assigned to at most one bundle. Note that the thin arcs in the example show possible assignments, while the bold arcs show one actual assignment. Tasks denote the entities that are competing for available assets. In our approach, the only important feature of a task is its information requirements. Bundles are collections of individual assets (sensors and platforms). An arc between a bundle and a task indicates that the bundle is able to meet (at least to some extent) that information requirement (task). Each bundle has a unique bundle type. Assets represent the individual sensor and platform resources. An arc between an asset and a bundle means that that asset can be assigned to that bundle. A solution to the sensor-mission assignment problem is an assignment of bundles to tasks, subject to the constraints: each task can have at most one bundle assigned to it, a bundle may be assigned to at most one task, each asset may be assigned to at most one bundle. Note that the thin arcs in the example show possible assignments, while the bold arcs show one actual assignment. Hybrid ontology+rules-based reasoning: Rule-based representation of (extended) NIIRS scale allows tasks of form: detect/identify/distinguish Proves extensibility of our original ontology- based approach. How it works: NIIRS-based rules infer basic capabilities (IMINT, ACINT, etc) needed for high-level tasks. We then apply matchmaking using Missions & Means Framework as before, to give us bundle types. Each bundle type is an intensional definition of a set of bundles of assets that can satisfy a task (to some extent). We generate candidate bundles, and find an allocation using the CASS combinatorial auction algorithm. The assignment problem can be formulated as an auction in which the bidders are tasks T 1,...,T m and the items are assets A 1,...,A n. Each task is associated with a utility demand d j, indicating the amount of sensing resources needed, and a profit p j, indicating the importance of the task. Each task places a bid, equal to its own profit, for any set of assets which satisfy the task's demand and respect the task's budget constraint. We compute the value that bidder Tj obtains if it receives the bundle B of assets using: We are now able to demonstrate full integration of hybrid reasoning with optimization problem-solving, in our prototype SAM tool Where: u j is utility of B to T j w j is cost of B to T j T is satisfaction threshold

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