2 In This Presentation Background of PDF Files & Accessibility Methods for Creating Accessible PDF DocsPDF & WCAG 2.0 CompliancePrinciple 1: PerceivablePrinciple 2: OperablePrinciple 3: UnderstandablePrinciple 4: Robust
3 Why PDF Portability Preservation of visual formatting and layout Ideal format for long documents intended for printingEasy to produce compared to HTMLDocuments can be secured against editing
4 Examples of PDF use Technical documents and manuals Reports, especially with complex layouts, graphs, charts etc.Forms, meant for print or online deliveryScanners and other hardware that output PDFPrint and design industryLarge and/or complex documents published on web sites
5 PDF and accessibilityCandocumentsretain these advantages of layout, portability, security and still be accessible?PDF documents support a logical, accessibles tructurethat is independant of the layoutSecurity used to cause an accessibility issue, not any more. Documents canbe securedagainst editing but still be accessibleAccessible PDFs can be produced quickly but, as with HTML, the source document must contain structure and semantics
6 When is PDF notaccessible? A scanned image is still an image, with no information for screen readers unless the information is addedSame for PDF, HTML or any document formatPDF can support a wide array of accessibility information for all content elements, but these must be added, in the source document or in Acrobat
7 Background of PDF Accessibility Until 2001, PDF was not accessible:Content not readable by ATEach page was basically a flat image:Scanned paper documentConverted to image from source documentSince then: PDF can (and should) be fully accessibleAccessible tag structureReal text rather than image of textControl over reading orderText alternativesAccessible form controls
8 PDF Accessibility: Tags A tagged document contains an underlying ‘tag tree’:Represents the structure of your documentPerceived by screen reader as document contentNot tagged = not announced by ATSimilar to tags in HTMLCan be edited using the ‘Tags Panel’Always required for accessibilityEnables typical screen reader features, such as:Heading navigationTable navigationLink lists
9 Creating Tagged PDF Documents Different ‘paths’ leading to an accessible PDF doc:Preferred method:Conversion from accessible source documentAuthoring ApplicationTag structure automatically builtScanned DocumentsRequires OCR and tagging in Acrobat ProExisting PDF docMust be tagged in Acrobat Pro
11 About WCAG Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) Explain the requirements for accessible contentVersion 2.0 released December 2008Organized around the following 4 principles:PerceivableOperableUnderstandableRobustEach principle has guidelinesEach guideline has sucess criteriaMention that were not coverering each success criterion in detail, just the ones most applicable to PDF
12 Principle 1: Perceivable “Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.”Principle 1: Perceivable
13 Guideline 1.1: Alternative text “Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.”Images:Apply alternative text in authoring application.Example: Microsoft WordUse Adobe Acrobat ProExample: use the Touch Up reading Order Tool (TURO).Decorative ImagesDo not need alternativeExample: remove image from tag structure using TURO.Form ControlsUse LiveCycle Designer for large, comeplex formsUse Acrobat form tools for small, basic formsExample: Making existing form controls interactive.Example 1: img_alttext.docRight click on each image, choose ‘format picture’, in the dialog that appears select ‘alt text’ tab to show text altExample 2: img_alttext.pdfStart TURO tool, right click on image, select ‘edit alternative text’Example 3: decorative_img.pdfStart TURO tool, select image, choose ‘presentation’ in TURO window to remove the image from the tag structureExample 4: form.pdfChoose forms > add or edit fields, then click OK button. Demonstrate that all fields are correctly recognized, labeled and made keyboard accessibleAlso show the ‘add form field’ drop down button on the top left in form editing mode, to illustrate that you can manually add controls as well.
14 Guideline 1.2: Time-based Media “Provide alternatives for time-based media.”Embedded multimedia must be provided with alternativesCaptionsAudio descriptionsFull text transcriptsThe synchronized alternatives are applied to the actual media, not in PDFUse Flash_cc_demo.pdf. Demonstratecaptioningcontrols.
15 Guideline 1.3: Adaptable“Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.”Use headings to provide document structureExample: Using MS Word heading stylesExample : Tagging headings with Acrobat ProProvide header cells for data tablesExample: Using the Table EditorProvide a logical reading orderExample: Using the Touch Up Reading Order ToolExample 1: relations.docShow that headings are marked up with heading styles using the MS Word styles panelShow that table at the bottom of the document is marked up as word tableNow convert the document to accessible PDF, using the ‘Acrobat’ tab in the ribbonIn new document, select a heading, open the tags panel, and choose ‘find tag by selection’ to show the heading is correctly tagged.Scroll down to page 6, where the small table isOpen the TURO tool,Right click on the table, choose ‘table editorShift click on all header cells > right click on selection, choose ‘table cell properties’.In cell properties dialog, choose ‘header cell’ as type.Example 2: bad_reading_order.pdfStart TURO to show incorrect reading orderSelect each column, one at a time. For each, select ‘text’ in TURO, to make entire column one reading order stop
16 Guideline 1.4: Distinguishable “Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background. “Adobe Reader provides helpful features:Customizable high contrast colorsUnlimited maginication12.45Example: open bad_reading_order.doc in reader to demonstrate high contrast and high level zoomingthroughaccessibilityoptions.Optional:Open Relations_background.pdf in Reader.Show how the contrast settings are overwrittenwhenit has a background.Open Relations in Acrobat Pro and remove the background.
17 “User interface components and navigation must be operable.” Principle 2: Operable
18 Guideline 2.1: Keyboard Accessible “Make all functionality available from a keyboard. “All interactive controls must be reachable and operable without a mouse.Ensure the tab order is logicalExample: Setting the tab order with the ‘fields’ panelExample: forms.pdfMake sure form fields are applied (forms > add or edit fields) and enter form edit modeIn the ‘fields’ panel show options ‘tab order’ drop down list (default, by column, by row, custom).In the dropdown list, also choose ‘show numbers’Choose custom, and drag items up and down in the fields panel to illustrate the tab order is updated
19 Guideline 2.4: Navigable“Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.”Automatically import bookmarks and TOCsExample: Using PDFMakerExample: toc.docOpen acrobat tab in ribbon, click settings, click ‘bookmarks’ tabShow that you can map word headings as bookmarks and word bookmarks as wellConvert doc to accessible PDFShow that table of content links have been preserved in the convcersion to PDFOpen bookmarks panel in acrobat reader to show the heading structure as bookmarks
20 Principle 3: Understandable “Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable.”Principle 3: Understandable
21 Guideline 3.1: Readable”Make text content readable and understandable.“Always set the document’s languageFor the entire document (using document properties)For specific sections (using the tags panel)Provide glossaries and IndicesMark up abbreviationsExample: Using tag properties to add alternative text to an abbreviated text.Example: french.pdfOpen file > properties > advancedSet language to ‘French’Example 2: french_part.pdfScroll to french paragraph on page 2 and select itUse the tags panel (find tag from selection) to locate the paragraph in the tags tree.Right click on <p> tag, choose properties.In the ‘tag’ tab of the properties dialog, set the language to frenchExample 3: abbreviation.pdfLocate the ‘SCUBA’ tag. In it, there is a span element that has the fully expanded text set as alternative text in its properties
22 “Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.”Principle 4: Robust
23 Guideline 4.1: Compatible “Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.”Manually Provide RolesExample: Using the tags panelOptionalExample: any fileUse eitehr the tags panel or the TURO tool to add tags (i.e. Roles) to elements
24 Ensuring Accessibility at the Source Conversion to accessible PDF from authoring applicationEnsuring Accessibility at the Source
25 Conversion to PDF From Accessible Source Document Advantages:Tag structure automatically built based on styles / markup usedSignificantly more efficient / effective than tagging PDF after conversionMost accurate tag structureAbility to edit content without having to reapply tags in AcrobatPDFMakerAdd-on for popular business applications, such as MS Office and Lotus Notes1.15pm
26 Example Workflow: Creating an Accessible PDF Using MS Word Use appropriate styles, e.g. Heading, list and paragraph.Use PDFMaker add-on to create a tagged PDF File.Use Acrobat Pro to inspect and repair document if needed.Walkthrough of options in Word documents
27 Repairing existing inaccessible PDF files Legacy Documents
28 Repairing Scanned Documents Use Acrobat’s OCR featureScanned text will be recognized and converted to actual text.OCR Makes a text in a scanned document:SearchableSelectablePerceivable by assistive technologyOCR is not perfectYou must manually fix ‘OCR suspects’Document still requires a tag structureExample: scannedPDF.pdfDemonstrate unselectable textChoose document > OCR Text Recognition> Recognize text using OCREdit the OCR options, choose ‘cleartext’ as output optionsStart the OCR processDemonstrate results: text now selectable, searchable and scalable
29 Adding and Editing the Tag Structure Acrobat Pro provides several tools for tagging:‘Add Tags to Document’ commandAccessibility CheckCreates overview of accessibility issues, including tag relatedProvides quick link to each issueTouch Up Reading Order (TURO) ToolAllows content to be selected and assigned a tag typeTags PanelAllows tag structure to be edited manuallyhigh level example: untagged.pdfQuickly demonstrate features:Advanced> Accessibility > Add tags to DocumentThis willl automatically open accessibility report, show some examples of its outputShow TURO and tags panel
30 Wrapping Up To Summarize: PDF documents can always be made accessible and WCAG 2.0 compliantCreate accessible source documents, then convert to tagged PDF.Use Acrobat Pro tools to repair accessibility problems
31 Further Reading Go to: Questions? http://www.adobe.com/accessibility/ Detailed guides for creating accessible PDF documents and formsQuestions?
32 Seminar Series Next seminars Also at http://adobe.acrobat.com/wcag2/ Webinar 2: “Flash and WCAG 2.0” Tuesday, March 31 12:00 noon EasternWebinar 3: “PDF Forms and WCAG 2.0” Wednesday, April 1 12:00 noon Eastern