Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

6 February, Washington DC

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "6 February, Washington DC"— Presentation transcript:

1 6 February, Washington DC
Female Genital Mutilation and Obstetric Outcome: How to take the results to doctors and midwives Hermione Lovel UK Heli Bathija, WHO 6 February, Washington DC 05_HB_Dakar_DEC1

2 Challenge: Each year 3 million girls are forced to undergo female genital mutilation, in many cases the medical profession is carrying out the procedure. However, in many other cases the doctors and nurses want to prevent complications but do not know how 05_HB_Dakar_DEC2

3 WHO overall Strategy on FGM
To play an advocacy role by emphasizing the importance of action against harmful practices at international, regional and national levels. To initiate and to coordinate the research and development being undertaken by international agencies, nongovernmental organizations and national authorities. To support national networks or organizations and groups involved in developing relevant policies, strategies and programmes. To support the training of health professionals in the prevention of female genital mutilation and the management of its health consequences. 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB3

4 To support the training of health professionals ( in all countries) in the prevention of female genital mutilation and the management of its health consequences. Issues Medicalisation: increase in percentages of girls whose FGM is performed by medical personnel Re-stitching: routine practice in many countries without any public discussion Preventing complications at birth for the woman and the newborn: de-infibulation during pregnancy not practised 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB4

5 It is important to train students of medical professions
330 5th year medical students in Alexandria, Egypt (country with 97% FGM prevalence): Awareness of the prevalence, practices and procedures low Poorly informed about complications, ethical and legal aspects 52% in favour of continuation of practice 73% in favour of medicalization 87% thought that the issue of FGM should be included in the curriculum Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2006, vol 12 (Suppl 2), S78-S92 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB5

6 The medical personnel might know WHO classification of FGM…
Type I : Excision of the prepuce and part or all of the clitoris Type II: Excision of the prepuce and clitoris together with partial or total excision of the labia minora Type III: Infubulation ─ Excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching of the two cut sides together to varying degrees Type IV: Pricking, piercing, incision, stretching, scraping, or other harming procedures on clitoris or labia, or both …But they might not be aware of how the FGM is performed and what the complications might be 05_HB_Dakar_DEC6

7 FGM instruments the thorns used to clasp infibulation
the herb, mal mal, that is used to "glue" infibulation 05_HB_Dakar_DEC7

8 Physical consequences of FGM
Severe pain is the most common immediate consequence of all forms of FGM. The degree of pain and trauma is such that a woman or girl is often left in a state of medical shock after the operation. Bleeding (Long-term anaemia also possible) Damage to adjacent tissue In extreme cases: death due to severe and uncontrolled bleeding or to infection. Urine retention Keloid scars, abscesses and painful cysts. Infertility 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB8

9 05_HB_Dakar_DEC9

10 Aims of the study The primary aims of the study
To evaluate the relationship between different types of FGM and obstetric complications. To estimate the incidence of obstetric complications among women with a history of FGM giving birth in hospital. The secondary aim of the study To obtain clinical information relevant to the prevention and treatment of obstetric complications in women with FGM. 05_HB_Dakar_DEC10

11 FGM prevalence in the participating countries
Burkina Faso 75% Ghana 5% Kenya 32% Nigeria 19% Senegal about 20% Sudan 90% 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB11

12 Methods Women Singleton delivery at one of 28 obstetric centres in Burkina Faso (5), Ghana (3), Kenya (3), Nigeria (6), Senegal (8), Sudan (3) Planned elective Caesarean sections excluded Consenting women examined in early labour and FGM status determined before delivery (women in advanced labour with expected imminent delivery excluded) 05_HB_Dakar_DEC12

13 Methods Statistics 28 509 women enrolled
126 (0.4%) excluded for missing data on age, parity, education, height, residence (urban/rural) Multivariate logistic regression, adjusted ORs Core factors: centre, age, parity, education, socio-economic status Additional factors (>5% impact on OR): height, residence, time to reach hospital, # ANC visits Separate models for FGM I vs. no FGM, FGM II vs. no FGM, FGM III vs. no FGM 05_HB_Dakar_DEC13

14 Recruitment Distribution of FGM type, by country
Country FGM 0 FGM I FGM II FGM III Total Burkina Faso 20% 23% 45% 13% 4816 Ghana 60% 11% 28% 1% 3094 Kenya 40% 21% 29% 10% 4167 Nigeria 12% 63% 24% 1% 5366 Senegal 21% 24% 54% 1% 3449 Sudan 18% 5% 5% 73% 7501 Total 25% 24% 27% 23% 28393 05_HB_Dakar_DEC14

15 Birth complications of FGM
From ”Caring for women with circumcision, av Nahid Toubia, MD. Rainbo, UK. 05_HB_Dakar_DEC15

16 Women with FGM run greater risks during childbirth…

17 … and so do their babies 05_HB_Dakar_DEC17

18 Additional Results Patterns of risks similar in nulliparous and parous women Significantly higher rates of episiotomy and perineal tears in women with FGM, though substantial heterogeneity between centres Estimated 10 – 20 additional perinatal deaths per 1000 live births in the countries where study conducted Complication rates likely higher in women with limited access to obstetric services 05_HB_Dakar_DEC18

19 Implications First clear evidence of obstetric sequelae
Previous data limited and equivocal, and focused more on immediate complications of procedure Clear evidence of harm for mothers and babies Adverse health effects of all FGM types – greatest risks with more extensive FGM Lack of effect on birth weight yet clear adverse effect on delivery process: supports hypothesis of mechanical problem (lack of elasticity of cut/excised tissues?) 05_HB_Dakar_DEC19

20 Implications "These results invite the authorities and health professionals to focus on women's rights and to ensure effective skilled attendance during deliveries at high risk." Dr Michel Akotionga, Principal Investigator, Burkina Faso "The results of this research provide empirical data … about FGM in general and especially in women with FGM going through labour, in our quest to eradicate the practice of FGM worldwide" Dr Kwasi Odoi-Agyarko, Executive Director, Rural Help Integrated Bolgatanga, Ghana 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB20

21 Way forward Strengthening health systems capacity to deal with consequences of FGM: Promotion of use of WHO guidelines Developing new guidance documents based on the findings of the research Electronic media: DVDs, internet (example the DVD by DFID for medical practitioners in UK) 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB21

22 05_HB_Dakar_DEC22

23 Way forward need to be working together: WHO
World Medical Association (WMA) International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (FIGO) International Council of Midwives (ICM) Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Pediatricians Private sector others 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB23

24 Next steps Meeting of a working group to develop two, three options for a workplan and resource mobilization Identifying focus countries Targeting information sharing through various tools Arranging training opportunities 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB24

25 06_Women Health Ministers Dinner November 8 06_HB25

Download ppt "6 February, Washington DC"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google