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POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU | Female Genital Mutilation and Cutting: Telling a Story with Trends
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Overview An estimated 100 million to 140 million girls and women worldwide have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and more than 3 million girls are at risk for cutting each year on the African continent alone. 1 FGM/C is generally performed on girls between ages 4 and 12, although it is practiced in some cultures as early as a few days after birth or as late as just prior to marriage. According to a 2006 WHO study, FGM/C can be linked to increased complications in childbirth and even maternal deaths. 1 P. Stanley Yoder and Shane Khan, Numbers of Women Circumcised in Africa: The Production of a Total (Calverton, MD: ORC Macro, March 2008).
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Overview continued FGM/C is practiced in at least 28 countries in Africa and a few others in Asia and the Middle East. FGM/C is practiced at all educational levels and in all social classes and occurs among many religious groups, although no religion mandates it.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Types of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Type 1 or Clitoridectomy: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the clitoral hood. Type 2 or excision: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora. Type 3 or Infibulation: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and placing together the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris. Type 4 or Unclassified: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes, for example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterization. Note: Current questionnaires used in the Demographic and Health Surveys do not differentiate between Types I and II, but only between whether a girl or woman has been cut, whether tissue has been removed, and whether tissue has been sewn closed.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Age Prevalence Among Younger and Older Women Percent
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Residence Prevalence Among Urban and Rural Areas Percent
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Within Countries Percent
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Type Prevalence by Type Percent Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting by Traditional and Nontraditional Practitioners Percent Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Note: Data for Egypt and Sudan (North) refer to daughters experience.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Education Prevalence Among Women by Level of Education Percent Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Wealth Prevalence by Wealth Quintile Percent Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Trends in Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Percent of women ages 15-49, by survey year Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys EgyptMaliEthiopiaChadCote dIvoire Kenya
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, Attitudes Women and Men Who Have Heard of the Practice and Believe It Should be Discontinued Percent Source: ORC Macro, Demographic and Health Surveys; UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.
© 2010 Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved. Legal Status of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, by Country Laws that specifically prohibit the practice: Benin Burkina Faso Central African Rep. Cote dIvoire Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Ghana Guinea Kenya Mauritania Niger Senegal Tanzania Togo Uganda Sources: Center for Reproductive Rights, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM); Legal Prohibitions Worldwide; Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices, International, Regional and Legal Instruments for the Protection of Women and Girls Against FGM/C; Inter- Parliamentary Union, Legislation and Other National Provisions; Womens United Nations Report Network, FGM Legislation for 25 African Countries – Female Genital Mutilation. No specific laws, but some provisions*: Cameroon Chad Guinea-Bissau Mali Sudan (North) *Existing provisions of ciiminal codes have been or can be applied to FGM/C No Laws: Gambia Nigeria Sierra Leone Somalia Yemen
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