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Organization and Management of Language Arts Program: Research about the Classroom Environment How Exemplary Teachers Organize What Research Says about.

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Presentation on theme: "Organization and Management of Language Arts Program: Research about the Classroom Environment How Exemplary Teachers Organize What Research Says about."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organization and Management of Language Arts Program: Research about the Classroom Environment How Exemplary Teachers Organize What Research Says about Grouping for Instruction Lesley Mandel Morrow: Rutgers University IRA Research Conference, Toronto, May 2007 Thank you to Ray Reutzel and Heather Casey for input in the Literature Synthesis. We published a chapter together in: The Handbook of Classroom management, entitled: Organization and Management of Language Arts Teaching: Classroom Environments, Grouping Practices and Exemplary Instruction. Eds. Evertson & Weinstein, Erlbaum, 2006 pp

2 Outline of the Presentation Literacy Rich Classroom Environments and their effect on Literacy Achievement Assessing Literacy Rich Environments Exemplary Practice and Organization and Management with an emphasis on: What Do exemplary teachers do when organizing and managing their school day Whole group, small group, and one on one instruction Differentiating instruction Summary and Conclusions with suggestions for future research I will report on several pieces of my own research and others as well The research includes literature syntheses, experimental design studies, and qualitative research

3 Research Synthesis Process Formulate a precise research question Determine key terms for conducting the search Employ a systematic literature search process Identify the available research Classify, describe and analyze the findings Report the results Shanahan, 2000 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs

4 Key Terms for the Literature Search Reviewed ERIC thesaurus search terms Identified terms relevant to the research questions Two literature searches were run in the following databases: Academic Search Premier, Professional Development Collection, Primary Search, Psych and Behavior Sciences Collection, PsychINFO, TOPICsearch, Social Sciences Abstracts, ERIC. Results of searches were compared and synthesized

5 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Research Question 1: How do the physical features of a literacy-rich environment in classrooms impact student engagement and achievement?

6 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Providing the Environment with Literacy Tools, Props, and Materials – Access is Key Many classrooms lack books and literacy tools therefore these students lack access. References: Fractor, Woodruff, Martinez, & Teale, 1993; McGill-Franzen, Allington, Yokoi, & Brooks, 1999; Morrow, 1990; Neuman & Celano, 2006; Reutzel & Fawson, 2002.

7 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Providing the Environment with Literacy Tools, Props, and Materials – Providing access to books, literacy supplies, and literacy technology positively influences student literacy acquisition References: Clark & Kragler, 2005; Gump, 1989; Hoffman, Sailors, Duffy, & Beretvas, 2004; Katims & Pierce, 1995; Meskill & Swan, 1998; Morrow, 1992; Neuman & Roskos, 1992, 1993; Vukelich, 1989.

8 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces Environment is linked to human behavior in predictable ways. A study using the setting as the unit of analysis found: Human behavior changes from setting to setting to meet the needs of the setting Human behavior in each setting is more similar than different Barker (1968, 1978)

9 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces Arrange classroom areas according to functions (whole class lessons, small group lessons, science center, etc). Devise efficient and clear traffic flow patterns that lead up to and around smaller classroom areas Childrens literacy development is integrally tied to practical action, resulting from their need to control, manipulate, and function in their environment. References: Neuman & Roskos, 1997; Bromley, 1988; Mayfield, 1992; Staab, 1991, Morrow, 1990; Neuman and Roskos, 1992; Vukelich, 1989

10 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces Studies show connections between childrens literacy learning and physical design changes in classroom environments. Classroom space should be sharply defined and arranged in a strategic manner. Moveable furniture such as tables, cabinets, easels, book- shelves can create physical definition in classroom areas. References:Neuman and Roskos (1992, 1993, 1997), Roskos and Neuman (2001), Morrow, (1990); Rivlin & Weinstein, 1984).

11 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces Seating arrangements must be considered in relation to the literacy learning tasks to be completed. Individually completed tasks need more isolated seating arrangements, e.g. cubicles or even desks in rows Collaborative tasks need seating for children to be together, e.g., tables and pods (Hastings & Schwieso, 1995).

12 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces Factors of greatest importance in spatial design of classroom environments include: 1) organization of space, 2) accessibility of materials, 3) familiarity of procedures for using materials 4) meaningful purpose of the activities 5) the ability to have social interactions (Cambourne, 2001; 2002; Neuman & Roskos, 1997; Neuman, 1999; Roskos & Neuman, 2001).

13 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Physical Arrangement of Classroom Spaces – Effects on Engagement & Achievement Strong relationships exist between the amount of books and the physical design of library centers and childrens use of books during free choice time. Children in literacy rich classrooms had higher reading achievement than did children in classroom with less access to literacy materials. Physical design changes in classroom centers increases young childrens length, frequency, and focus on activities in literacy. Morrow & Weinstein,1982; Taylor, Blum & Logsdon (1986); Neuman and Roskos, 1992)

14 Literacy Centers Rocking Chair, Rugs, Throw Pillows Computer Multiple Genre Books (5-8 per child and 3-4 grade levels) Open Faced Shelving Books Stored By Genre Leveled Books Felt Board and Roll Stories Headset and Taped Stories Method For Checking Out Books Books on Tape Rules Demonstrations For Using Materials Accountability Elementary School Journal, Reading Research Quarterly, Reading Teacher, Book chapters, a research monograph for NCTE, books

15 Relationship Between Recreational Reading and Scores on Standardized Reading Tests Percentile Rank Minutes Reading/Day

16 Multiple Genres Available Fiction Non-Fiction Picture Books Informational Books Magazines Biography Poetry Novels

17 Organizing the Environment with Themes to Enhance Literacy Development

18 The Teddy Bears Blood Pressure is 29 points. He should take 6 pills an hour and go to bed until he is better.

19 Literacy and play occur as children use the post office to mail letters they have written

20 Play to create Language Development

21 Children are creating clay animals while studying them in their thematic unit

22 Children learned from their curiosity When a rich environment is created.

23 Desperate Housewives During Dramatic Play

24 Very Own Word A collection of words On 5x8 cards Selected by the child Stored in a file box or in a baggie Read them, trace them, copy them

25 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Provisioning the Environment with Literacy Tools, Props, and Materials Note the fact that all other dimensions of classroom environment depend on beginning with provisioning the classroom with literacy tools, materials, and supplies. Interactive relationship among the four dimensions of print-rich classroom literacy environments. (Wolfersberger, Reutzel, Sudweeks, and Fawson, 2004)

26 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Research Question #2: Can the literacy-richness of elementary classrooms be effectively assessed?

27 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs The Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP) Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP) – is a qualitative instrument that examines the literacy richness of early childhood and elementary classrooms. The tool was designed through a systematic and extensive review of the literature, classroom observations, and teacher focus groups about the multiple and complex characteristics of literacy-rich classroom environments. The CLEP is composed of 33 items and two subscales. Subscale 1 focuses on the quantity and arrangement of print materials and literacy tools available in the classroom. Subscale 2 focuses on organization and literacy interactions using print materials and literacy tools in the classroom. Items are rated on a 7 point Likert scale with descriptors for 1, 3, 5 & 7 points. Wolfersberger, Reutzel, Sudweeks, & Fawson (2004)

28 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs The Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP) CLEP, examiners rate Quantity, utility, appropriateness of literacy tools; Quantity of genres, levels, format, and content of text materials; Classroom organization print, Number of student literacy products created, shared and displayed, Reference materials available; Forms of written communication; Writing utensils, writing surfaces, publishing supplies Technology available Classroom space allocations by size, location, boundaries, and types; Presence of a classroom library; Accessibility of reading and writing tools; Invitations and encouragements to participate in literacy events; Authentic literacy events, settings; interactions with literacy tools; Wolfersberger, Reutzel, Sudweeks, & Fawson (2004)

29 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs The Classroom Literacy Environmental Profile (CLEP) The CLEP instrument has demonstrated reliability among raters in determining the richness of the classroom literacy environments CLEP is a viable instrument for achieving acceptable levels of generalizability. Wolfersberger, Reutzel, Sudweeks, & Fawson (2004)

30 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs The Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) The Early Language and Literacy Classroom Observation (ELLCO) Toolkit is a set of observation tools for describing the extent to which classrooms provide young children with optimal support for literacy and language development The ELLCO includes 3 interdependent observation components: 1) The Literacy Environment Checklist, 2) The Classroom Observation and Teacher Interview, and 3) The Literacy Activities Rating Scale. The tool has an inter-rater reliability of 88% agreement among raters. The authors report that the Literacy Environment Checklist is sensitive to changes in classroom environments but were less sure of the subscales stability of measurement over time. (Smith, Dickinson, Sangeorge, and Anastasopoulos, 2002)

31 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs The TEX-IN3 Observation System Test Inventory: the range and quality of print materials in classrooms such as: Electronic texts, process texts, games, charts, journals, leveled books, serials, portfolios, reference materials, teacher/student work, and textbooks, etc. Text Use: records observations of teachers and children interacting as they use print materials The entire environment of the classroom is rated using a researcher designed rubric. A Teacher Interview about the above items. TEX-IN3 has high inter-rater-reliability and is useful for evaluation and research processes Hoffman, Sailors, Duffy, & Beretvas (2004).

32 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Question # 3 What do Exemplary Teachers do in the Organization and Management of their Classrooms?

33 According to Research from the following groups: Children are more successful developing literacy when they have excellent teachers The Program for the Improvement of Student Achievement (PISA) The Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) The Center for English Language Achievement and Assessment (CELA) Researchers (Allington, Block, Johnston, Morrow, Pearson, Pressley, Ruddell, Taylor)

34 Characteristics of Exemplary Literacy Instruction Varied Strategies Grouping to Meet Individual Differences High expectations Teachers Care Constructive Feedback Productively Engaged Differentiate Instruction Explicit Instruction Problem Solving Organization & Management Skills: Rules, etc. Excellent Preparation Professional Development Block, Oaker, & Hurt, 2002; Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, & Morrow, 2001; Mosenthal, Lipson, Torncello, Russ, & Mekkelsen, 2004; Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 1999; aylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2005

35 Researchers Determining Characteristics of Exemplary Teachers Block, Oaker, & Hurt, 2002; Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999; Pressley, Allington,Wharton-McDonald, Block, &Morrow, 2001; Mosenthal, Lipson, Torncello, Russ, & Mekkelsen, 2004; Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 1999; Taylor, et. al., 2003; Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2005

36 Exemplary teachers have students who score well on reading tests.

37 Exemplary teachers help low achieving children to score better

38 Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated Who Wonderful Teachers Are Appreciated and Good Teachers are appreciated and Can Make Our Childrens Dreams Come True Dear Mrs. Eisen, You are sweeter then a sweet potato. You are beter than a chocalate ice crème with foge. I love you. Caprice Dear Mrs. Rupper, I love you so mutch. I think of you all the tim. I need to give you a hug all the time. I will alwayz think of you. Love, MariCarmen Dear Mrs. Roman, I like to talk to flowers on Saturday and Sunday. But I really get to talk to one all the other days in school when I talk to you. I love you, Orlando Dear Mrs. Heyer When I grow up, I want to be just like you. Love, Tania

39 Organizing an Exemplary Day Independent Activities Morning Meeting Morning Message Thematic Storybook Reading Mini Skill Lesson, Comprehension/ Word Study Center Time Modeling Center Activities Activities are differentiated Activities Begin Small Group Differentiated Instruction Instruction Assessment Writing Workshop

40 Whole Class Activity Morning Message materials: chart paper, markers, pointer, word finder skill: locate specific word families/chunks within the context of a sentence

41 Why do we use Centers Centers activities are for heterogeneous groups Children get to practice skills learned Children learn to be independent, self directed, and how to collaborate with peers Provides activities when other assigned work is completed. Differentiated materials are provided to meet individual needs. Allows teacher to meet with guided reading groups or individuals to teach skills

42 Explicit modeling: Teacher does a lesson to introduce skills with center material Guided Practice: Materials are used with the teachers help Independent Practice: Materials placed in center for children to use Include written directions for use Include accountability for all center activities Include rules during Center Time Put completed work in a designated spot Helping children to use center activities to meet their individual needs

43 Types of Centers & Activities Word Study Center: With onset and rime letters create words for these word families (up, op, an, at). Write down the word families. Listening/Comprehension Center: Listen to the story on the headsets and follow along in the book Fill out the graphic organizer for story structure elements. Do one illustration for one story structure element Writing Center: Retell the story using the felt board and story characters provided. Write the retelling. Library Corner: Select an informational book that was read to the class. Partner read the book Discuss and then write and illustrate the part you liked the most Choice Activities when others are completed: Do a program in the computer center Use one of the games in the word study center Write a short book about the theme being studied in your classroom

44 Center Materials for Practicing Comprehension 1. Felt Board Stories Characters from a book made of oak tag or construction paper. They are backed with felt or sandpaper and used when telling a story by displaying them on a felt board. 2. Roll Movies stories illustrated on paper that come on a roll (such as shelving paper). Dowels are inserted into a box with a rectangular cutout opening. The roll story is taped to the dowels at the top and bottom. The dowels are turned to reveal each scene. 3. Prop Stories A collection of materials for a particular book such as three stuffed bears, three bowls, and yellow-haired doll for telling the story of Goldilocks. 4. Puppet Stories Various types of puppets for telling stories such as hand, stick, face, and finger puppets. 5. Chalk Talks Drawing a story on a chalkboard or a sheet of paper while the story is being read or told.

45 Word Study Center Activities

46 Roll a Word materials: onset cube, rime cube, paper, pencil skill: blending; use onsets and rimes to build words

47 Making Words materials: letter tiles, pocket chart, index cards with little words and mystery word skill: manipulate letters to make words, sort words by chunks, use chunks to create new words

48 Word Wheels materials: word wheels, fasteners/paper clip & pencil skill: blending; use onsets and rimes to build words

49 How children go from one center to another: Teacher assigns kids Center board indicates Change with the guided reading group Ring a bell, set a Timer Assign three activities allow one choice activity

50 Small Group Instruction Research Question #4 What does the research say about The nature of small group instruction Childrens achievement Childrens attitudes and behavior in small groups

51 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Small group homogeneous instruction is used to provide children differentiated learning 1. To address individual needs based on assessment. 2. To challenge children in an appropriate manner to meet their level of achievement

52 Nature of Homogeneous Small Group Instruction Nature of Teaching in Homogeneous Groups Explicit Skill Instruction To meet Individual Needs Use of appropriate materials On going Assessment On going reporting to home Nature of Group: Size, Time Spent, etc. Change frequently As many as you need, 3 to 5 children in a group Selected by similar needs Meet daily or less for 5-30 minutes Selecting Groups Use Multiple measures such as: Running Records Observation Standardized Assessment Teacher Judgment, Alternate Rank Ordering

53 How to Select Reading Materials at Childs Instructional Level Teacher Judgment Print Size Language Patterns Illustrations, Vocabulary repetition Types of words, Numbers of words Number of different words, Length of sentences Length of book, Predictability, Decodable elements

54 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Research on Homogeneous Grouping Children who are high achievers do better in ability groups for reading than if they were not grouped at all. Grouping does not seem to help or hurt middle achievers; low achievers were not consistent. Some studies found that low-achieving children did do better in small-ability groups for reading instruction, other studies found that they didnt Ability grouping was associated with gains early literacy (Eder, 1981;Esposito, 1973; Hiebert, 1983; Kulik & Kulik, 1982; Lou, Abrami, & Spence, 1996).McCoach, OConnell, & Levitt (2006)

55 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Homogeneous Grouping Observations of what happens in small-ability groups in reading instruction explains the findings High-ability groups read more than children in the low-ability groups. They also read continuous text that is uninterrupted. High-ability groups were asked analytical questions and received lots of praise. The attitude in the high-ability groups was positive with high expectations for student achievement.

56 Low Ability Groups Teachers had low expectations for student success Children recognized when they were in the low- ability groups and had negative feelings about it Low-ability groups, spent less time reading and more time working on isolated skills When they read it was small pieces of segmented text rather than whole uninterrupted text (Allington, 1984; Eder, 1981; Gambrell, Wilson, & Gnatt, 1981; Grant & Rothenberg, 1986).

57 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Homogeneous Grouping Positive feelings about groups included: Students said they read more in small-groups Had more positive interactions with the teacher, More positive interaction with each other, Negative feelings about groups: Once a group is formed you never move out of it. Children in a low-groups feel really dumb. There are a disproportionate number of children of color in low-ability groups. Most negative comments about ability grouping came from children in the low-ability groups (Allington, 1984; Eder, 1981; Grant & Rothenberg, 1986; Hiebert, 1983;Weinstein, 1977).

58 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Homogeneous Grouping By Ability Children in low-ability groups spend more time oral round-robin reading, working in workbooks, and decoding than do their peers in high- groups. Teachers tolerate more interruptions in low-ability groups than in high Children in low-ability groups exhibit three times the number of inattentive behaviors exhibited by students in high groups Children in low-ability groups often have low academic expectations and self- concepts Teachers tend to interrupt low readers more often when they miscue while reading than they do high readers ( Allington, 1980, 1983; Gambrell, Wilson, & Gnatt, 1981; Leinhardt, Zigmond, & Cooley, 1981; Felmlee & Eder, 1983; Eder, 1983; Hiebert, 1983; Rosenbaum, 1980).

59 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Homogeneous Grouping Friendships are increasingly influenced by continuing membership in an ability group (Hallinan & Sorensen, 1985). Ability grouping may not be as harmful to students if group membership was changed at least monthly (Worthy & Hoffman,1996) Ability grouping is used in 50% of the nations blue ribbon schools (Kletzien, 1996).

60 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Small Group Practice – Centers Engage children in productive, independent work (Bansberg, 2003; Cambourne, 2001, 2002; Moore, 1986; Olds, 1987; Reutzel & Cooter, 1991; Taylor & Pearson, 2002; Taylor, Pearson & Clark, 2000;Weinstein, 1977, 1981). Examples include: Library Corners (Katims & Pierce, 1995; Morrow&Weinstein,1982, 1986; Neuman, 1999; Neuman & Celano, 2001; Reutzel & Fawson, 2002). Literacy-Enriched Play Centers (Dickinson & Tabors, 2001; Neuman & Roskos, 1992, 1993, 1997; Rogg, 2001; Roskos & Neuman, 2001; Vukelich, 1994). Children report that small group independent work is productive

61 Purpose of Study To survey teachers in grades K-8 to determine whole group and small group practices by focusing on the following issues: Do teachers engage in small group instruction? How often do small groups meet? How many students make up a small group? What materials are used during small group instruction? What do other children do during small group instruction Do teachers value small group instruction? What are some of the problems with small group instruction?

62 Procedure A survey distributed to 1,000 teachers throughout New Jersey 675 of the 1,000 teachers surveyed responded The survey was composed of 22 questions; 16 were objective and 6 were open ended

63 Data Source The data was analyzed by: Grade and then grouped into early childhood (k-3), elementary (4-8), and then put together Percentages were used to determine results Open ended questions were tallied by grade All open ended responses were listed and categories emerged to determine trends

64 TABLE 1 GRADE LEVEL SURVEYS RECEIVED K TABLE 2 (1 response requested) Do you have small groups for meeting individual needs Responses combined into grade level chunks YesNoNo response K- grade 391 %6 %3 % Grades 4 – 677 %13 %10 %

65 Results Small group instruction is used by most teachers however more reading instructional time is done in whole group Teachers most often responded that small groups meet 1 day a week; 2 days was the next most common response; and then 3 days The survey reflected that most small groups are comprised of 4 children; 5 was the next most common response Most teachers reported that their classrooms have 2-3 reading groups

66 Results Reading groups met from 5 to 40 minutes and the most common responses were 10 to 20 minutes Most teachers spent 45 minutes to an hour teaching in small groups during the school day. 33% of teachers consider management to be the biggest problem with small group instruction The majority of teachers reported that small group instruction could be improved with the help of an aid

67 Small Group: A Summary The majority had small group instruction 2 to 3 times a week Majority have 4 to 5 children in a group Majority see each group 1 to 2 times a week Majority spend 10 to 20 minutes in groups Majority believe small groups are important to meet individual needs Some said it was overwhelming Many said they didnt know how to do it

68 What teachers need to differentiate Instruction More help in the classroom, reading teachers, aids, parents Professional Development More planning time Administrative support More manipulative resources (independent materials, technology)

69 What is differentiated instruction? Flexible approach to teaching Responds to student differences, interests, readiness, and learning needs Modifying materials and instructional approaches to meet student needs Same instructional goal different procedures

70 Ways to Differentiate Guided Reading small group instruction to meet individual needs Literature Circles Tiered Assignments Tiered Centers Contracts Cooperative Learning Assistive Technology Assessment to Guide Instruction Literacy Rich Environments with appropriate materials for all

71 Instructional Tiers First Tier: High-quality, whole-group instruction Second Tier: Differentiated small-group instruction Third Tier: Intensive Intervention

72 Understanding Tier One Whole group Instruction for all Basic foundational material Conceptually rich Builds knowledge, skills and strategies Linked to state standards Informed by research Teacher directed Activities include: group work, individual practice and assessments Usually about 60 minutes of language arts block

73 Understanding Tier Two More targeted instruction Usually shorter portion of the language arts block (30 minutes) Differentiated instruction is done with: Small groups or individuals working directly with the teacher, for accelerated work, to help those who are struggling, to reinforce Children who arent with the teacher work in small groups or alone on activities geared to their ability

74 Understanding Tier Three Even more targeted than Tier Two (Safety Net) Systematic and explicit instruction Aimed at preventing children from needing special education services by providing more flexible regular education options. Usually an additional 30 minutes a day of the language arts block

75 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Haertel, and Walberg (1994) examined 11,000 studies to determine factors influence student learning most in classrooms. They found 28 factors, but the single most important factor was: CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT A teacher who is, grossly inadequate in classroom management skills is probably not going to accomplish much (Wong & Wong, pg. 84).

76 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs General Conclusion: How well teachers organize and manage the language arts classroom is the bedrock underlying effective literacy instruction (p. 576). Morrow, Reutzel, & Casey, 2006

77 Thomas Jeffersons Beliefs About Literacy Education The ability of every citizen to read is necessary to the practice of democracy Reading should be taught during the earliest yeas of schooling Reading will ensure that the people will be able to be safe and be the guardians of their own liberty.

78 We Can Make Our Childrens Dreams Come True Japanese Proverb Better than 1000 days of diligent study Is one day with a great teacher

79 The End Additional slides saved for future reference.

80 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Teacher Expectations – Teachers held high but appropriate expectations for all students Teachers structured the environment and activities so students understood expectations, and outcomes to promote student independence, cooperation, and task completion. Teachers held high expectations for themselves since they looked to improve their knowledge by attending professional development, seeking additional education, joining professional organizations. Block, Oaker, & Hurt, 2002; Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Block, and Morrow, 2001; Mosenthal, Lipson, Torncello, Russ, & Mekkelsen, 2004; Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 1999; Taylor, et. al., 2003; Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2005

81 TABLE 4 (1 response requested) How many children are in each reading group? Responses combined into grade level chunks No response Grades K-3 0.5%5 %25%38%15%4 %1% %11 % Grades %1 %22%29%7 %4 %2%1% 04 %27 % TABLE 3 (1 response requested) How many reading groups do you have in your class? Responses combined into grade level chunks 23456No response K- grade 35 %22 %35 %22 %5 %11 % Grades %17 %20 %21 %0 %29 %

82 TABLE 7 (1 response requested) How long do you meet with each reading group? Responses Combined into grade level chunks 5 min10 min15 min20 min25 min30 min35 min40 minNo response Grades K-31 %11 %34 %24 %10 %12 %0 % 8 % Grades %10 % 25 %9 % 5 %23 % How much time do you spend teaching in small groups in a week? Responses combined into grade level chunks 30 min45 min1 hour1 hour 30 min 2 hoursNo response Grades K-311 %15 % 13 %32 %14 % Grades %18 %16 %9 %23 %21 % TABLE 6 (1 response requested) How many times a week do you meet with each reading group? Responses combined into grade level chunks 12345No response Grades K-310 %27 %26 %12 %13 %12 % Grades %18 % 5 % 6 %32 %

83 How often do you meet with small groups during the week? Responses combined into grade level chunks 5 days4 days3 days2 days1 dayNo response K- grade 38 %16 %25 %20 %23 %8 % Grades 4 – 68 %10 %15 %18 %29 %20 %

84 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Whole Class Instruction Whole class teaching and learning space is generally located near a large display surface such as a white board or projection screen and well away from designated small group instructional areas. In early childhood rooms rugs are used for seating an entire class of children. In elementary classrooms, desks or tables are arranged in close proximity and face a large display surface. Whole-class instructional space is allocated to support teacher explicit instruction of literacy skills, strategies or concepts. (Bansberg, 2003; Morrow, L. M., Tracey, D. H., Woo, D. G., & Pressley, M., 1999; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Collins-Block,&Morrow, 2001; Reutzel & Cooter, 1991; Romeo, 1999)

85 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Whole Class Instruction Whole class literacy strategies include teacher modeling of choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, shared reading, readers theater, reading aloud, interactive writing, language- experience charts, etc. In whole-group instruction teachers use big books, posters, overhead transparencies, power point presentations, etc which can be easily viewed by a group of children. Whole class instruction provides few opportunities for students to explore or elaborate ideas or to meet individual needs (Bansberg, 2003; Morrow, L. M., Tracey, D. H., Woo, D. G., & Pressley, M., 1999; Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald, Collins-Block,&Morrow, 2001; Reutzel & Cooter, 1991; Romeo, 1999) Hardman, Smith, & Wall, 2003; Schumm, Moody, & Vaughn, 2000).

86 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Heterogeneous Grouping Cooperative learning heterogenous groups have shown consistent positive effects on student achievement ((Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson, & Skon, 1981; Jongsma, 1990; Opitz, 1992; Radencich, 1995; Slavin, 1988; Stevens, Madden, Slavin, & Farnish, 1987a, 1987b; Topping, 1989; Webb & Schwartz, 1988; Wood, 1987). In a synthesis of research on cooperative learning, Slavin (1991) found that cooperative learning not only increased student achievement but also increased student self-concept and social skills.

87 Table 9 (Open ended response) What materials teachers used in small groups Responses combined into grade level chunks Leveled booksBasalsChildrens Literature Combination of 3No response Grades K-338 %2.5 %3 %47 %8 % Grades %1 %16 %50 %21 % TABLE 10 (Open ended response) Activities Carried out by Teachers During Reading Groups ActivityPercent K - 3Percent 4 – 6 Grades Read Alouds20 %5% Mini-lessons in Comprehension10 %25 % Fluency Training 12% 11% Vocabulary Development 15% 13% Mini Lessons in Word Study (phonological awareness phonics, sight words, ) 30%33 % Independent/Silent Reading10 %5 % Mini Writing Lessons and Experiences10%15 %

88 TABLE 11 (Open ended response) What do your other children do when you are working in small groups? Responses combined into grade level chunks Workbook pagesAssigned activitiesCenters assigned or by their own selection Combination of all three tasks No response Grades K-310%18 %41%20%11 % Grades %30%10%8%40 % TABLE 12 (Open ended response) If you have centers, what type do you have? Responses combined into grade level chunks computerswritingCompWord study Indep. rdgmathArtScienceotherNo response Grades K-3 61 %74 %37 %57 %71 %25 %18%8 %12%2 % Grades %32 %22 % 32 %4 %0% 0 TABLE 13 (Open ended response) What systems do you use when moving students from one center to the next? Responses combined into grade level chunks Teacher assigns studentsChildren make their own choices BothNo response Grades K-353 %22 %8 %18 % Grades %12 %4 %56 %

89 TABLE 14 (Open ended response) What are your biggest problems when you carry out small-group instruction? Responses combined into grade level chunks Classroom management (disruptions, noise) Not enough timePlanning TimeAll otherNo response K- grade %12.5 %0 %4 %27 % Grades %6 % 18 %40 % TABLE 15 (Open ended response) How could small-group instruction be made more manageable? Responses combined into grade level chunks Another adult Smaller class size More time to plan / carry out instruction More resources Professional Development No Response K- grade 3 40 %20 % 47 % Grades %25%20%28 %17 %60 % TABLE 16 (Open Ended Response) What are the greatest values in small group instruction? Responses combined into grade level chunks Meets individual needsMore personal attentionAll otherNo Response Pre- K- grade 3 66 %10 %.5 %26 % Grades %5 %9.8 %38 %

90 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Classroom Environments Exceptional Classroom Management – The classroom was well organized with clear procedural training about the purposes and expectations for each area of classroom space. Instructional routines and procedures were clearly defined, well understood, conspicuously displayed, and consistently applied. Teachers created literacy rich environments with access to and Emphasis Upon Books– A variety of real texts with children – poetry, songs, environmental print, stories, decodable books, pattern books, and information texts. They also used differing levels of books from easy to challenging to meet the instructional and independent levels of children. Teachers created and maintained a classroom atmosphere of respect, support, and clear expectations. Children were taught to help, support, cooperate, and collaborate in the best interests of others as well as themselves. The affective quality in the classroom is exemplary

91 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Structure and Content of Instruction – Effective Practices Instructional Balance – Teachers integrated explicit skills instruction seamlessly with authentic, connected text reading and writing practice and experiences. Instructional Density – Children were always engaged and productive. Teachers covered many more skills/ concepts/ strategies per hour of instruction. Every moment in the classroom was oriented toward the goal of promoting learning – even lining up for lunch or recess! Instructional Strategies-Used varied strategies and integrated the teaching of reading and writing to meet different learning styles and needs

92 Organization and Management of Language Arts Programs Teachers were as comfortable teaching content knowledge to children during reading and writing instruction as they were teaching reading and writing skills as tools for acquiring content knowledge. Teachers are passionate about what they do and care about their children Teachers made every effort to assess and monitor students to assure that the tasks assigned in reading and writing were of sufficient challenge to promote engagement and progress but not to induce frustration and failure. Teachers organize small group instruction to meet individual needs. Block, Oaker, & Hurt, 2002; Morrow, Tracey, Woo, & Pressley, 1999; Pressley, Allington,Wharton-McDonald, Block, and Morrow, 2001; Mosenthal, Lipson, Torncello, Russ, & Mekkelsen, 2004; Taylor, Pearson, Clark, & Walpole, 1999; Taylor, et. al., 2003; Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2005


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