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NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness A

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1 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness A
NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness A. Reflecting on Good Teaching Mini-module A, Reflecting on Good Teaching Time: 30 minutes Materials: this deck; index cards or post-it notes for each table

2 Objective Participants will be able to understand the logic and structure of Danielson’s Framework for Teaching. Facilitator should read the objective, or ask a participant to do so. This session is designed to have participants think about where this rubric came from?

3 The Wisdom of Practice If you walked into a classroom, what might you see or hear the teacher and students say or do that would cause you to think you were in the presence of an expert? Time: Wisdom of Practice – 10 minutes Materials: 5 Post-its/ or Index cards per participant This is an independent activity, asking participants to brainstorm a list of what high quality teaching looks like. Purpose: By asking participants to identify elements of excellent teaching, they begin to create a framework of their own. Ultimately, participants will see that their perceptions of good practice are similar to what Danielson identifies. They also dive into serious discussion about what good teaching practice is and begin to build a common understanding and language. To begin, provide each participant with 5 post-it notes. Tell them to write down one example of an indicator of effective teaching practices per post-it. Participants will be sharing each post-it and moving them around, so it is important that they only write one item per post-it. Facilitator should circulate to address questions and make sure participants are generating post-its. *The activity, “The Wisdom of Practice,” comes from professional development developed by the Danielson Group.

4 Bucketing Activity Share your post-its. Sort them into 4 categories.
Agree on a label for each bucket. Label:___ Label:___ Label:___ Label:___ Time: Bucketing Activity – 10 minutes, followed by 5 min. debrief Materials: Post its from previous activity Purpose: for participants to identify broad categories of teaching practice and the components and elements that might make up those broader categories. Table groups (or groups of 4-5) share their post-its and sort them into larger clumps (“buckets”) of related items. They then label those buckets. Activity – 10 minutes Make sure all participants are working in groups. Circulate to clarify instructions. This activity sparks rich conversations about practice and what matters most. Facilitators should listen to conversations and encourage groups to name their categories during the time allotted for this activity. Encourage groups to develop their own ideas. They should not be given the Danielson Framework for Teaching or any other framework in advance. They will compare their sorting to the FfT after they have gone through the process. De-Brief Bucketing Activity – 5 minutes Facilitator elicits the categories different groups identified. Purpose: Elicit the broader categories (or domains) that participants developed to note how similar some of their lists were and to demonstrate that even if they came up with different categories they were generally addressing the same broad ideas. Facilitator asks different groups to share their categories and some of the items they included. Once several groups(or all, depending on time and size of the whole group), have shared, explore their ideas by asking: Q: What do you notice? Q: Where there patterns in your group? Across groups? (Have participants identify them and explain what they think they mean).

5 Domain Focus Re-sort your post-its, using the four domains of Danielson’s Framework for Teaching. Planning and Preparation Professional Responsibilities Classroom Environment Instruction Time: Domain Focus (Reviewing Danielson’s Framework for Teaching Bucketing) - 5 minute closing, which also previews the next session Materials: None After discussing the ways the participants framed practice, reveal this slide to show how Danielson approached it. Purpose: Participants should understand that any good framework starts with real practice and breaks it into categories so it can be examined. Most groups come up with overlapping categories and recognize the logic of Danielson’s Framework. Ask participants to reflect on the Framework presented: Q: How different is this from what we came up with? Q: Are these categories sound? (Can participants “get behind” these categories?) Key Message: Good Teaching is Good Teaching. It represents what we know about teaching from our experience. What a teacher knows and does in preparation for teaching. Professional responsibilities and behavior in and out of the classroom. All aspects of teaching that lead to a culture for learning in the classroom. What a teacher does to engage students in learning.

6 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness B. Examining the Framework
Time: Mini-module #2, 30 minutes Materials: this deck; copies of the rubric components; component exploration organizers

7 Objective Participants will be able to articulate what the components are and how they can support improving teacher practice. Facilitator should read the objective, or ask a participant to do so. Now we are going to dive into the components and look at what does the framework say about teaching.

8 Domain Focus Planning and Preparation Professional Responsibilities
Classroom Environment Instruction What a teacher knows and does in preparation for teaching. Professional responsibilities and behavior in and out of the classroom. All aspects of teaching that lead to a culture for learning in the classroom. What a teacher does to engage students in learning. Time: Intro - 2 minutes Return to this slide from the session #1 – as a review of the four Domains. In the Danielson Framework for Teaching, a teacher’s practice includes these four categories: Domain1: Planning and Preparation Domain 2: The Classroom Environment Domain 3: Instruction Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities

9 Danielson’s Framework for Teaching
Domain 1: Planning and Preparation Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy Demonstrating Knowledge of Students Setting Instructional Outcomes Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources Designing Coherent Instruction Designing Student Assessments Domain 2: The Classroom Environment Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport Establishing a Culture for Learning Managing Classroom Procedures Managing Student Behavior Organizing Physical Space Domain 3: Instruction Communicating With Students Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques Engaging Students in Learning Using Assessment in Instruction Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness Domain 4: Professional Responsibilities Reflecting on Teaching Maintaining Accurate Records Communicating with Families Participating in a Professional Community Growing and Developing Professionally Showing Professionalism Time: Examining the full Framework - 5 minutes Materials: Distribute copies of this slide to participants. Introduce the targeted components [as per the C.I.E.] the group will be examining/using for the year, highlighted here in red. Describe the structure of the Framework: - Connect it to the activity they did in the previous activity in which they sorted the classroom practice into 4 buckets. The four domains are divided into 22 competencies, each of which has a rubric that identifies core elements and the range of performance from “Ineffective” to “Highly Effective.” Clarify language that this language is aligned with C Domains 2 and 3 are on-Stage (during teaching) and Domain is 1 and 4 are off-stage (outside of the classroom) Components that are highlighted in orange are the priority components being supported centrally this year. The full list of components for use in the new system for evaluation is still being determined. Resources in ARIS Learn are available for school leaders and teachers on these components.

10 Example: Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques
Domain 3: Instruction Component 3b: Questioning and Discussion Techniques Description (of each level of practice) E.g., At a Highly Effective level, “The teacher uses a variety or series of questions or prompts to challenge students cognitively, advance high level thinking and discourse, and promote metacognition.” Time: Rubric Review - 4 minutes Materials: Danielson Framework for Teaching Rubric This slide shows an example of one component (1e) at one level of practice, shown as part of its domain and with its sub-elements (critical attributes and description). Like this example, each component speaks to several elements of teaching. Pass out copies of the rubric for participants to review. Allow the majority of this four-minute period for participants to read on their own.

11 Reflection What might we see in your classroom practice, reflected in the rubric language? What connections do you see between the components and your work? Time: Workshop Reflection – 5 minutes Focus on Component 3B for this reflection. In what ways do these components capture classroom practice? Which…are most relevant to your work? Reflection can be a turn-and-talk at tables or in small groups, a group share, or a written reflection. Possible responses about the rubric: The Danielson Framework is based on research that describes 20 yrs of teaching practices that impact student achievement

12 Activity: Danielson Component Exploration
In groups For the assigned component: Highlight key words that show the difference between levels of practice. e.g., some students v. all students; convergent v. open-ended Discuss and record responses on the organizer provided, as well as specific examples of practice at each level from your own professional experience. Time: Component Exploration - 12 minutes Materials: Component Exploration Organizer and Rubric Pass out the component exploration organizer. Assign components – 1e, 3b, and 3d - table by table.. (If participants want to explore a component they are less familiar with than the one they are assigned, facilitator may allow them to choose one as a group.) Participants should follow the instructions on this slide, highlighting differences they notice between ratings, and then articulating examples of practice at each rating level. Encourage groups to be explicit in their examples, giving details that show the distinctions between levels of practice. Leave a few minutes for groups to share out.

13 2. Prepare and Share Feedback
A collaborative cycle of observations and feedback drives teacher growth. 1. Observe The school leader gathers low-inference evidence of teacher practice. 2. Prepare and Share Feedback The school leader assesses practice; school leader and teacher prioritize and determine 2-3 next steps. 3. Develop The teacher implements next steps with support from the school leader. Closing - 2 min Preview the next module by overviewing the whole observation, feedback, and development cycle – the rubric comes into play in the second two steps, “prepare and share feedback” and “develop.” School leaders use the rubric to rate and give constructive feedback. The rubric provides a common language about instruction, opening dialogue between the teacher and school leader that leads to targeted development. We are going to focus on the Prepare and Share Feedback section which is where the rubric provides the guidance. Let participants now that the coming modules will involve watching a video, taking notes on it, and rating the instructional practice observed.

14 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness C
NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness C. Introduction to Taking Low-Inference Notes Mini-module #3, 30 minutes Materials needed: this deck; low-inference note-taking forms; copies of the rubric; Low-inference notes assessment card sort. Key Message: Low inference note taking may seem simple but it actually very hard.

15 Objectives Participants will:
Distinguish between low-inference evidence and opinion/interpretation. Describe how low-inference note-taking helps observers accurately interpret teacher practice in order to support teacher development. 1 minute Facilitator should read the objectives, or ask a participant to do so.

16 What are low-inference notes?
Low-inference notes describe what is taking place without drawing conclusions or making judgments. What do you see and hear the teacher and students doing? What evidence can you gather of student learning? What will students know and be able to do at the end of the lesson? Time Teacher Actions Student Actions Time: What are low-inference notes? - 3 minutes The facilitator should review information on this slide. Emphasize: - Observing while taking low-inference, non-judgmental notes is the critical first step to evaluating practice and supporting teachers’ professional development. - Low inference notes (aka Literal Notes) are evidence-based, not opinion-based. An observer should write what s/he sees and hears students and teachers doing/saying. - Low inference notes are not rated using the effectiveness scale. After notes are taken, they are then coded and aligned to the rubric. This process is critical to accurate rating. Review guiding questions and suggested template – examples of notes follow on next slide.

17 Comparing Notes What makes the first example stronger? Time
Teacher Actions Student Actions 1:01 1:03 Teacher asked kids to stand and led them in “The Days of the Week” song. Teacher asked “What day comes after Saturday?” 16 of the 27 kids stood up for the song. Steven shouted out, “Monday!” Most students laughed – 2 boys physically rolled around and knocked over 2 girls. Steven walked away from the group, and sat in the opposite corner of the classroom. Time Teacher Actions Student Actions 1:01 1:03 Teacher reviewed the days of the week. Teacher asked the question about the days of the week. Many students were not listening. Steven called out over and over again Time: Comparing Notes - 10 minutes Have participants read over this slide. Engage whole-group in discussion of what sets the exemplar notes (in orange) apart from the non-exemplar notes (in gray). Facilitator will want to guide with questions like, “What makes the first example stronger?” “What’s another difference between the first and second example?” and/or “What pitfalls do we see in the second example that are avoided in the first?” Make sure to draw out common pitfalls: Excessive “edu-speak” (e.g., maximum engagement, high-level question) Vagueness (e.g., responsive, a management procedure) Opinions or words that convey judgment rather than state evidence (e.g., excellent work, great example) What makes the first example stronger?

18 Activity: Identifying Low-Inference Evidence
Independently, review the short examples of low-inference notes. In pairs, sort the examples into two piles: Examples of low-inference notes Non-examples of low-inference notes Discuss What distinguishes the low-inference notes? How would you reword statements that are not low-inference? Activity: Identifying Low-Inference Evidence – 10 minutes Give out handout with examples of notes. Examples are printed in such a way that you can cut them out and put them on index cards if you choose. Ask participants to sort between them – low-inference or not. Close the discussion by reinforcing key points as a whole group: Evidence is a factual reporting of events. Evidence may include teacher and student actions and/or behaviors. It may also include artifacts prepared by the teacher or students. Evidence is free of evaluation or interpretation. In addition, strong low-inference notes gather as much as possible! More evidence leads to more accurate rating and more targeted development.

19 Reflection Why is it important to collect low-inference evidence before trying to assess teacher practice? How can low-inference evidence support teacher development? Reflection - 6 minutes Reflections can be as a whole group, with partners, or on paper. If the group will be completing it next or in the near future, facilitator may want to preview module 4, which will give practice on actually taking low-inference notes and using them to rate practice.

20 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness D
NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness D. Gather, Review and Sort Evidence Mini-module #4, 30 minutes Materials: this deck; low-inference note-taking forms; copies of the rubric

21 Objectives Participants will:
Observe classroom practice while collecting low- inference evidence of teacher practice. Code or sort observation evidence. 1 min Facilitator should read the objectives, or ask a participant to do so.

22 Best Practices for Observation
Eliminate effects of bias. Enter the classroom without judgment and work from evidence. Take low-inference notes. Write down only what teacher and students say and do. Look for learning. Seek evidence of what students know and are able to do. Remain, review, reflect. Pause to organize your evidence before rating. 2 min Say, “This is the guidance given school leaders before they enter a classroom. The same should apply to our viewing today.” Allow participants an opportunity to read through this guidance and respond. Why are these best practices? How does each one support accurate and fair rating of practice, as well as meaningful professional development?

23 Prepare to Observe Watch the video and record your low inference notes of the teacher’s actions and the student’s actions. We will only view the video once, as we can only view classroom practice once. After the video, you will have the chance to code your evidence to the Danielson Framework language. Time: Prepare to Observe - 2 min Materials: LINT Form Use these instructions to ready the room. Pass out note-taking forms at this point, but not rubrics. This is to set up the norm that low-inference note-taking is a step that comes before any use of the rubric or rating. Note: This a good place to have a moment of empathy and share how difficult this is and the SL’s are practicing this.

24 View Video of Teacher Practice
Video links: Cheng (HS) Rios (ES) Smith (MS) Facilitation Note: You must have access to wifi or the internet through your broadband card and laptop. If technology does not work use the transcript to make be able to continue with the session without the video 10 min Smith:  http://vimeo.com/tegvideos/review/ /bcff4fdae1 Cheng:  http://vimeo.com/tegvideos/review/ /ed499e0bf7 Rios:  http://vimeo.com/tegvideos/review/ /50f9e4ab79

25 Share and Review Evidence
In groups 1. Each participant shares one piece of evidence. As a group, make sure each item shared is low-inference evidence. Each participant should have a turn to share before others share additional evidence. 2. Add to your notes any low-inference evidence your colleagues shared that you did not capture before. Time: Share and Review Evidence - 10 minutes Materials: This activity should begin in tables or small groups. In a round-robin format, each participant states a piece of evidence they observed. The group should check one another for low-inference note-taking – making sure that the information gathered is specific evidence, free of interpretation, bias, or opinion. As a facilitator, make sure that everyone is getting a chance both to share and respond to others. Look for participants to be adding to their notes with new, valid information from others (e.g., direct quotations they didn’t capture before). “We are here to support each other and we are learning together”

26 Connecting Evidence to Components
Code your notes to identify which components your evidence supports. Some evidence will not align to 3b or 3d, while other evidence may align to more than one component. Share results with a partner. 5 minutes Facilitator should provide an example of how to code evidence. This (cite evidence) _______________ aligns to 3b. So I am writing 3b next to this statement. At this point, participants will code their notes to the rubric, without rating. This simply means writing the component name (e.g., “3b”) next to each piece of evidence that aligns. As necessary, you may want to point out to participants that there is no rating happening yet – they are simply figuring out which components that have evidence for. Participants will need these notes for the next Mini Module. Share the expert rating and rationale.

27 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness E
NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness E. Align Evidence to the Framework Mini-module #5, 30 minutes Materials: this deck; low-inference note-taking forms; copies of the rubric

28 Objectives Participants will be able to determine a level of performance for selected components based on low-inference evidence. 1 min Facilitator should read the objective, or ask a participant to do so.

29 Best Practices for Preparing and Sharing Feedback
Align evidence to the rubric. Code evidence to the Danielson Framework for Teaching and determine the level of performance for each component observed. Prioritize. Select one or two parts of the teacher’s practice on which to focus. Sharing Invite dialogue. Welcome and value teacher input. Refer to evidence. Discuss low-inference evidence from the observation and invite dialogue on the evidence or its alignment to the rubric. Identify development areas. Define specific areas for development and invite the teacher to comment on those areas or to suggest additional areas. Plan concrete action. Together, develop clear and measurable next steps, including resources and a plan for support. Set a timeline. Agree on a plan for implementation and follow-up. 1 min Begin by showing the best practices for Preparing and Sharing Feedback. We will be focusing on the first step in preparing feedback – aligning evidence to the rubric. We’ve already coded our evidence as part of section 4, so now it is time to determine the level of performance for each component observed. For now, we will be working with components 3b and 3d, Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques and Using Assessment in Instruction.

30 Activity: Align Evidence to the Framework
Refer to your coded notes from Module D: Gather, Review and Sort Evidence. Read over all your notes that align to component 3b, Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques. Highlight the rubric language that describes each piece of evidence. Determine a rating for the component, based on the preponderance of evidence. Repeat this process for 3d, Using Assessment in Instruction. Time:15 minutes Materials: Highlighters, Rubric and the evidence they gathered in Gather, Review and Sort evidence, Rating and Rationale document Participants should use highlighters if possible for this activity. Participants will need their notes from the previous session (Gather, Review and Sort Evidence), as well as copies of the rubric components 3b and 3d. Note, before participants start rating: The rubric is not to be used as a checklist. If most of the evidence falls under a certain HEDI performance level, that is the performance level. To receive an “Effective” rating, a teacher does not have to demonstrate practice for every indicator in the “Effective” column. Read over the instructions for participants, or have a participant read them out. Make sure that everyone is clear on the process.

31 Discussion Discuss your ratings for 3b and 3d with a partner, sharing the evidence and rubric language that supports your ratings. Share ratings as a whole group. Discussion - 13 minutes (10 for discussion, 3 for whole group share and closure) For the first ten minutes, ask participants to share ratings with a partner, stating their evidence and reasons for their conclusions. Remind participants that rationales should be based in evidence alone. After ten minutes have passed, ask participants to vote on ratings. See where the majority of votes fell. If the room has landed on the expert ratings, ask a few participants to give their reasoning. If the majority of votes is tending toward ratings that don’t match the expert ratings, ask for rationales from participants of differing opinions, and then describe the expert rating and rationale. If the room is far off the expert rating and rationale, you may want to remind the group that we’re all learning, and that school leaders are receiving training to make sure their ratings are calibrated.

32 NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness F
NYC DOE – Office of Teacher Effectiveness F. Prioritize Areas for Feedback Mini-module #5, 30 minutes Materials needed: This deck; feedback preparation forms; notes from the previous sessions; copies of the rubric, for reference

33 Objectives Participants will: Prioritize areas for feedback.
Articulate best practices for giving feedback on practice. Objectives - 1 min Facilitator should read the objectives, or ask a participant to do so.

34 2. Prepare and Share Feedback
A collaborative cycle of observations and feedback drives teacher growth. 1. Observe The school leader gathers low-inference evidence of teacher practice. 2. Prepare and Share Feedback The school leader assesses practice; school leader and teacher prioritize and determine 2-3 next steps. 3. Develop The teacher implements next steps with support from the school leader. Intro – 1 minute

35 Best Practices for Preparing and Sharing Feedback
Align evidence to the rubric. Code evidence to the Danielson Framework for Teaching and determine the level of performance for each component observed. Prioritize. Select one or two parts of the teacher’s practice on which to focus. Sharing Invite dialogue. Welcome and value teacher input. Refer to evidence. Discuss low-inference evidence from the observation and invite dialogue on the evidence or its alignment to the rubric. Identify development areas. Define specific areas for development and invite the teacher to comment on those areas or to suggest additional areas. Plan concrete action. Together, develop clear and measurable next steps, including resources and a plan for support. Set a timeline. Agree on a plan for implementation and follow-up. Best Practices for Preparing and Sharing Feedback – 5 minutes This slide was also used in the previous session, and thus may be familiar. Here in session F, we’re focusing on step 2 of “Preparing Feedback,” and looking ahead somewhat to the five steps of sharing feedback. Pause to allow participants to review this slide. Discuss as a whole group – what is the purpose or logic behind these best practices? How do they effectively support teachers to strengthen practice, in the interest of student success?

36 Practicing Prioritization
On your feedback preparation form, identify one area of strength and one area for growth that will have the most substantial impact on student learning. Based on the lesson and student work you observed: What strengths in the teacher’s practice do you want to highlight? What aspects of instruction most need to improve? Identify priority areas that will have the most substantial impact on student learning, as well as the evidence you will share to support them. (NOTE: You may choose to prioritize a component, or to select a priority that would address several components.) Priority Areas of Strength: Evidence: Priority Areas for Growth: Time: Practicing Prioritization – 10 minutes Materials: Preparation Feedback Form Pass out the feedback preparation forms. Explain that school leaders have been trained on these forms, for the purposes of preparing to provide excellent feedback to teachers, that helps them improve practice and student outcomes. This is not the form that you will receive from your principals. Give participants 1 minute to read over their copy of the form. Emphasize that the form includes guiding questions that help observers stick to best practices, including prioritization, where we’ll start today. The first step on the forms is identifying areas of strength and areas for growth. What strengths in the teacher’s practice do you want to highlight? What aspects of instruction most need to improve? Have participants look back to their ratings and evidence, and answer these questions to identify one area of strength and one area for growth. Participants should write on their copies of the feedback preparation form. This activity can be done individually or with partners.

37  Discussion Where is this teacher’s practice strong? How do you know?
What evidence do you have? Where should the teacher focus to improve practice? Discussion – 5 minutes As a whole group, convene to discuss the areas of strength and areas for growth identified individually or in pairs. Push participants to state the evidence behind their choices and rationales for prioritizing each area.

38 Closing Activity: Questions and Next Steps
Independently use the feedback preparation form: Refer to your evidence and priority areas. Draft questions you have for the teacher Refer to the Best Practices for Sharing Feedback section to develop the next steps that will significantly impact student learning. Share your proposed next steps with a partner: Ask one another, “If this were your classroom, would this feedback be useful to you?” Make changes to strengthen questions and next steps. Closing Activity - 8 minutes While the focus of this session is on prioritization, teachers should also get an overview of the action-oriented parts of feedback. Ask teachers to individually complete their feedback preparation forms, and draft questions for the teacher and next steps. In the final minutes of the session, ask a few participants to state their key takeaways from the session.


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